Since adults are largely self-determining, helping them develop metacognitive skills is an essential element in any program intended to increase their autonomy. The metacognitive skills are presented as a list without reference to level of language skills. Like technology skills, learners’ metacognitive abilities are rarely aligned exactly with their language skills levels. The ability to understand and analyze one’s own learning is especially influenced by educational background and previous experience. The area of metacognition presents a special challenge to instructors at the lowest levels, where learners have higher-order thinking skills in place but lack the communication skills to relay them.
(Kathleen, B. (April 1987) Which theory also mention that lecture is a passive nature which is lack of aiming and the structure, it maybe withdraw from student or leaner real life practice, lack of understanding on previous and current knowledge and effort required to maintain attention, that the reason why adult always looked for their need to learn ().On this statement, adult need to understand or knowing the reason behind before start to learn. That’s the reason adult need to know how learning organized, supposed to be learning it might happen and the reason of learning is very important. These will allow patients have the appropriate planning, to avoid mistake of teaching content. Patient also might feel hardly to understand during the lecture which it due to the adult lack of information or knowledge about the topic for giving them.
(Gandy). Although she makes the point that standardized testing does show results for areas of improvement, she does not acknowledge why these tests are controversial, and why some students already start at a disadvantage. People forget that teachers and administrators work for students; this means young children. Students, especially young children, must aim to be strong readers in order to survive in society. Everyday people are mislead and taken advantage of because of poor literacy skills.
Anxiety in language contexts is conceptualized as a feeling of apprehension associated with second language contexts (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1994). There are two kinds of anxiety: facilitative and debilitative. In facilitative anxiety learners overcome their anxious feelings. On the other hand, debilitative anxiety makes the student avoid the anxious situation. It is the later which concerns me as it has negative effects on students’ oral performance.
According to Gardner and McIntyre (1993) behaving the students with the same approach has been the big mistake of the past decades in teaching. Considering individual differences is an important issue in second language learning. Dörnyei (2005) mentioned that individual differences are “the most consistent predictors of learning success.” Since each learner is particular and unique, he requires his own way of teaching style. Each student is different and independent from the other students so we cannot find two exactly similar students in one class. These differences have caused teaching problems.
2.2 Self -esteem and foreign language learning Much less written about the construct of self-esteem and foreign language learning, it is make an importance in education psychology as a critical factor in children’s academic and social development. This chapter is about a ground breaking experience linking self-esteem and language learning. It shows how self-esteem can affect language learning and how it can be used as a tool for improving language acquisition while fulfilling other educational goals such as personal development and social integration. Many times, as teacher, we feel that our lessons did not succeed in spite of careful planning, good preparation and knowledge of the subject. We know something went wrong, yet we can’t say
This may be one of the difficulties while working with adults. Teachers often rely on students, thinking that adults are more responsible; or are shy to give comments on students’ behavior participation. This usually leads to low comprehension and poor results at the end of the course. There are many different situations that are specific to adults. Time-management may also cause difficulties as older-age students come from work or have other duties except for language classes.
A Critical Review of Hall, 2011, “Affective Assessment: The Missing Piece of the Educational Reform Puzzle”, The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin International Journal for Professional Educators, vol. 77, no 2, pp. 7-10. In her article “Affective Assessment: The Missing Piece of the Educational Reform Puzzle” Hall claims, that nowadays despite being aware of threedomains of learner behavior such as cognitive, affective and psychomotor, teachers still tend to focus mainly on cognitive domain, leaving the other two behind. She says, that teachers not only fail to assess students’ affective domain, but sometimes are unable to identify it, since very little attention is being paid to it.
However, when getting older, we are more inclined not to assimilate the new information, but to use the accumulated knowledge. Of course, learning process for the adults requires more effort, patience and motivation. That is why learning a foreign language for the adult students has significant differences. Despite all the difficulties and obstacles, even those who begin to learn a foreign language after 35 years should know: learn a language is possible at any age. The main points to remember are: the motivation and the presence of the teacher, who will find a way to help master the basic grammatical rules, which is very important for an adult because they cannot rely on their memory which regresses with
Lamb also argues that, in second language acquisition, learners have already been socialized into the schematic knowledge related to their mother tongue, therefore, when students confront uses of foreign language, their natural inclination is to interpret them with reference to this established association, and rely on the foreign language as economically as possible. Although many teachers are worried about developing their learners’ fluency in language courses, being fluent is not enough to guarantee success in communication. It involves much more than language knowledge (Aquino,