Different percentage of gypsum was added with a soil from Raipur to simulate the conditions of Gypsiferous soil. Laboratory test were conducted to determine effect of gypsum content on liquid limit, plastic limit and compaction characteristics of soil. It was noted that with increase
The extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils is critically dependent upon three factors: a) the creation of optimal environmental conditions to stimulate biodegradative activity, b) the predominant Petroleum hydrocarbon types in the contaminated matrix and c) the bioavailability of the contaminants to microorganisms. The Petroleum hydrocarbon degradation is also affected by the molecular composition of the hydro carbons. Microorganisms with the ability to degrade crude oil are ubiquitously distributed in soil and mine environments. Dehydrogenase enzyme involves in this to remove the oxidative substrate, and has been found in correlation with the oxygen uptake and organic substrate removal rates in aerobic
The action of biosphere (Living components of soil) on the parent materials forms soil. Components of soil Soil has 5 major components: 1. Mineral matter: This is formed by the disintegration or decomposition of rocks which may be caused by the action of water, ice, frost, or temperature changes, or by plant or animal life. 2. Water: water which move through soil pores.
Wetland soils can reach a state of phosphorus saturation they released from the environment. Phosphorus exports from wetlands is seasoned occurring in late summer, early fall and winter as organic matter decomposes and phosphorus is related into surface water. Dissolved phosphorus is processed by wetland soil microorganisms, plants geochemical mechanisms. Harvesting of plant biomasses is need to maximize biotic phosphorus removal from the wetland system. The potential from long term storage at phosphorus through adsorption to wetland soil is graters than the maximum rates of phosphorus accumulation possible in plant biomass.
Pipes may transmit a large proportion of water to the stream in some catchments. The pipe networks can be complex and can provide a rapid connectivity of water, sediment and solutes coupling distant parts of hillslopes with stream channels. • Subsurface Flow – The runoff movement is principally below the ground surface. This will occur wherever the soil’s infiltration capacity is greater than zero. This is the dominant runoff process in the temperate humid regions where lush vegetation cover has produced a porous soil structures with infiltration capacity of many inches per
Deforestation increases the water evaporation to the atmosphere. Cloud can form by the process evapotransporation from the forest. If the trees in the forest are cut down, the evapotranspiration will affect the cloud formation and wind movement that help in regulating the temperature. Furthermore, increase evapotranspiration indirectly reduce the moisture circulation surrounding the soil and increase of the rainfall that control the temperature of the atmosphere. The precipitation will increase extremely and cause the land become dryer.
LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 General The natural soil behaves like an Expansive soil or cracking soil because these have tendency of shrinking and cracking when moisture content decreases and also have tendency of swelling when moisture content increases. The moisture may come from water leakage or sewer lines, rain, flooding. Soil generally exhibits these properties, when it contains montmorillonite clay minerals. The engineering properties of Natural soil includes plasticity characteristics, compaction properties, volume stability its strength may be enhanced by adding materials such as Rice husk ash, Sugarcane bagasse ash, cement, sodium chloride etc. The changes in properties of these soils primarily depend upon the type and amount of binder,
A Clean Look at Soil Mechanics Soils are basically unconsolidated layers that cover the earth’s surface. Soils consist of particles of varying shapes and sizes formed after parent rock are subjected to and broken down by forces of climate, organisms and chemicals over time. Soils mechanics refers to the art of applying the mechanics of solids to the soil to predict its deformation behavior and strength. Understanding soil mechanics enables engineers and other professionals to create structures with soil and appreciate its interaction with other structures built on it. For civil engineers soil plays a big part on whatever construction they are involved in.
Soil pH is considered a master variable in soils as it controls many chemical processes that take place. The level of soil acidity in cropping systems has a fundamental effect on plant growth and nutrient availability. The rate of hydrolysis is a function of factors such as pH, temperature, composition and particle size of the substrate, and high concentrations of intermediate products (Veeken and Hamelers, 2000). The hydrolysis rate constant of organic solid waste was pH dependent (Adrie et al.,2000). Olaniya et al.