The gender role continues as the child grows up. The gender role usually develop, given the limits to what biological differences can explain, how do males and females learn such different roles? The values and expectations of society are transmitted through the socialization process. (pp: 226 John E. Farley & Michael W. Flota). Teaching the gender roles and learning the gender roles according to Cooley, are self-image is a product of the messages were receive from others and the ways we understand and interpret those messages.
Gender is a socially constructed definition of what women and men are. It is different to the term ‘sex’. Sex refers to the biological characteristics of a woman and a man. What is masculine and feminine, for males and females, can vary depending on their cultural background. This means that the society’s expectations confirm the behavioural, psychological and physical qualities that are related to the particular gender.
Perceiving new information, including a new self-knowledge, encodes a child and organizes this information in accordance with the dominant cultural notions of femininity and masculinity and traditional notions of male and female roles in society. Thus, self-esteem and the child, and the preferred behaviors are largely determined by substantial component of gender
These gender roles evolve from standards put in place by society. What do theorists say about socialization and gender in child development? One of the major theories that are beneficial in learning about gender role development is the Social Learning Theory. According to behaviorist, Bandura, children first learn gender roles by observing behaviors of an adult of the same sex, imitating said adult (Bandura, 1977). Then, the surrounding adult will respond either with positive or negative reinforcement (Bandura, 1977).
Ortiz (1995) an Evans et al. (1998) present that knowing Students Development Theories can help higher education personnel (staff, faculty, and administrators) to provide better programs and services base on student diversity and particularities. Student Development theories generally fall into four broad categories, each of which represents different perspectives on the students: 1. Psychosocial Theories (Arthur Chikering and Linda Reisser, 1993) focus on the personal and interpersonal aspects of students ' lives as they accomplish various developmental tasks, or resolve the inevitable crises that
And at this level of decision making among youth, studies report that most of the decisions are dependent on ability, education, teacher’s advice, and also the level of counseling with peers and even cultural and familial background of friends. Though Thomas and Webber argued that the influences are dependent on male and female, their dwellings, livelihood, classes, subjects and their duration spend. Summarizing the contents, peer and friends play a significant role in changing the behavior of individuals, personality development and decision making regarding career, adaptation as well as positive and negative behavior in future life. The findings of this information indicate friends and peer group are influential in promoting academic choices. Through Arab Naz research we can understand that peer groups can
1.4 Objectives of the Study This study will be guided by the following objectives: (i) To determine the extent to which conflicts in a parent-child affect pupils’ academic achievement. (ii) To establish the role of the mediator in a parent-child conflict and its effect on a pupils’ self-esteem and academic achievement. (iii) To establish the nature of the relationship between pupils who experience parent-child conflicts and their teachers. (iv) To establish the impact of the quality of the relationships with mothers and fathers on the level of self-esteem and academic achievement of the pupils. 1.5 Research Questions This study aims at answering the following questions:- (i) To what extent do conflicts in a parent-child affect pupils’ academic achievement?
Adolescence is the period during which the skills and attitudes are acquired to help develop adults who will eventually contribute to society in meaningful ways. Adolescents may obtain the skills and training necessary to prepare themselves for adult roles. In his view adolescents are favor of peer group and selected entertainment heroes as their role models and slowly find declining parents and teacher’s role. Adolescents are usually attracted and influenced by peer group based on the use of verbal expressions hair style, clothing, food, music and entertainment preferences and decision related to rapidly changing social
In fact, the textbook under a quality education policy is an educational implement of major significance that can be used as a tool for social change. Cavender and Kahane confirm that “textbooks are intended to provide students with knowledge they will need to be productive citizens and to inculcate the values, customs, and attitudes of the society as a whole’’ (2009, p. 353). Textbooks, then, are considered as mediators for cultural norms, values, and models of social behavior manifested in the assorted content they present, and gender roles are a significant constituent of those models. The way textbooks portray males and females contributes to the images learners build up of their own roles and that of their gender in the society. This
In Bilash works, an explanation of the profile of the ELL or ESL learners is provided. According to her, it is of main prominence to consider who the students are and where they come from. She sets it is important for educators to understand that if students are classified as a general group it does not mean that each student can be assumed in the same way. Each ELL student will be different from the next and require different accommodations and cultural awareness. In the same study, she addressed that is also important to understand that in addition to coming from a different language background, students usually come from a different cultural, social and political background.