Factors Of Celebrity Endorsement

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McCracken (1989) Seno, Lukas (2007) and Pedhiwal (2011) observed that 'Celebrity Endorsement' today has become a trend and tool to a successful way for product marketing and brand building. Ohanian (1990) stated that celebrity endorsement is one of the strategies which companies believe and use to persuade a large number of people to purchase a product and increase market share. Park et al (2011)

According to Pikas et al (2012), the use of celebrities to endorse products is a popular strategy used by lots marketers and companies. Athlete endorsers, is a part of celebrity endorsers who are also too popular and have their own distinct stand in the minds of consumers.

In the United States, one of four advertisements and promotion uses celebrities
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According to Ohanian (1990), lots of various factors influence consumer of celebrities as endorser of a brand. Factors that celebrity have is their attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise that gives celebrity as an effective endorser.(Hovland, Janis and Kelley 1953; Hovland and Weiss 1951).

Thomson (2006), Self-determination theory says that people look or seek to satisfy three basic needs: the autonomy (freedom to make choices), relatedness (closeness to others) and competence (achievement). Thomson’s study found that consumer had stronger attachment towards celebrities who made them feel they are cared and love. They are also free to do what they wish for. Recognizing the achievement is not needed in order to have an attachment. Therefore, Autonomy and relatedness is important but not competency to develop human brand
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Such, celebrities increasingly are sought as endorsers for several brands within different product categories. To McGuire (1985), studies of celebrity endorsement focus on how celebrity traits influence consumers’ asses and remembrance of advertisements that featured products and brands (McGuire, 1985; Misra and Beatty, 1990; Ohanian,1991; Lynch and Schuler, 1994). The Source Attractiveness Model shows the effectiveness information base of the similarity, liking, familiarity and attractiveness of an endorser.(McGui re, 1985).

Thomson, MacInnis and Park (2005) describe emotional attachment to brands as an emotion bond between a brand and a person with deep feelings of connection/commitment, affection and passion. Emotional brand attachment from the result showed relation to brand satisfaction, brand attitude and brand involvement. Brand attachment defined by Park, MacInnis and Priester (2006) as the power of the cognitive and affective bond connecting the brand with the

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