Factors That Affect Holistic Development

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Cognitive, neurological and brain development (Acquiring knowledge and the nervous system).
Between birth to 6 months babies and children use their senses to become aware e.g. knowing they are hungry, as well as recognising key people in their lives and responding to physical smiles. In the next 6 months, they are beginning to understand tone of voice and begin to have favourite toys. Between 1 to 2 years children start to use objects correctly e.g. a cup. At this point they have a rapidly extending vocabulary and show awareness of others. 3 to 4 years is the age when children are fascinated by why things happen. By age 4 they can give reasons for their actions, remember major events and sort objects by colour and size.
Speech, language and
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They also begin developing fine motor skills and beginning to grow permanent teeth.

Emotional and social development

Confidence and independence grow increasingly between these ages. Children also become aware of feelings, and from this form friendships. They also have a growing attention span and sense of humour.

Speech, language and communication

Children between the ages of 5 and 8 learn to socialise, build confidence and self- esteem. Children who are limited with this may struggle to express themselves.

Factors that affect
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The EYFS believes that if a child has developed the three main aspects, the rest will develop alongside these.

Personal factors that can affect a child’s learning and development include their role models, the encouragement they are given, their resources and expectations. These are all based around their environment and their relationships with primary carers. External factors that can affect a child’s learning and development include the monitoring of their development, their opportunities, the resources and services they have access to, the influence of others, their consistency in education and ill health.

Atypical development can impact a child’s communication development, physical development and their communication development. Sensory impairments and language disorders may lead to delayed cognitive development, anxiety and poor behaviour. A slower or faster rate of physical development may lead to social exclusion. Communication development can be affected by a sensory impairment, or speech and language. This may also lead to delayed cognitive development and anxiety. To ensure positive development interventions are important. Observations and judgements need to be made to highlight whether a child needs to be referred to a specialist. By having good support this means that a child will be more motivated and have a greater self-
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