2.1 Urban Heat Island Urbanization changes the basic surface energy balance processes of shortwave and long wave radiation exchange, latent, sensible, and conductive heat flows (T.R. Oke, 1987). The surface albedo of cities is significantly lower than natural
Most researchers have considered the biggest contributor to the urban heat island effect is that there isn’t as much evaporation as vegetation has been replaced by concrete. Evaporation absorbs energy and keeps the rural areas cooler. Lei Zhao, of Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology in China, and colleagues began with a question: Would similar cities located in different climates experience the same increase in temperature from the urban heat island effect? From some research they could see some trends: bigger cities tended to experience a greater difference in temperature at midnight, compared with the
“When the rice gets sick, I am sad too.” In an article for Public Radio International, reporter Christopher Johnson tells the story of a 63 year old Vietnamese rice farmer. Hai Thach, who lives in the Soc Trang Province of Vietnam, notices that his once thriving rice field has been affected by saline intrusion, or the presence of salt in the water and soil in the area. Thach, along with other rice farmers in the province, rely heavily on their rice crops not only to feed their families, but as a source of income (Johnson). Although Vietnam’s carbon footprint is miniscule compared to those of countries like the United States and China, its farmers and citizens are being negatively impacted by the effects of climate change- an environmental phenomenon being caused and exacerbated by the actions of developed countries. Countries that are dependent solely on their agricultural industries for profit and global trade will be disproportionately affected by climate change, primarily its effects on sea levels.
ECOLOGICAL MODEL/PERSPECTIVE WHAT IS ECOLOGICAL MODEL? A general approach for systematically examining the reciprocal relationships between organisms and their environment. (Norlin,2003 ). A perspective that provides an understanding of person in their environment at various systems level. (Greene, 2007).
THERMAL COMFORT IN BUILT ENVIRONMENT RABI NARAYAN MOHANTY Table of Content Abstract 3 Introduction 4 Definition 4 Importance of Thermal Comfort 5 Thermal Comfort Factors 6 Measurement of thermal comfort 8 Thermal Comfort Model 8 Thermal comfort equation 10 Bibliography 12 Abstract Thermal comfort is the state of mind and it discourse satisfaction with the thermal environment. It is an important aspect of the building design process as modern man spends most of the day indoors. This paper will discuss the different parameters and indices of thermal comfort. The main focus of this study will be to discuss the relationship between thermal comfort, energy consumption in the context of tropical climate. Energy model and sustainable
Metabolism of livestock species is affected by ambient temperature rise and humidity levels. The magnitude of response depends upon species, breed and physical environment factors. The rectal temperature has been considered as an index of thermal balance of animal. The increase in body temperature of animals may be to an extent of 1-2 °C during normal diurnal variations and 4-5 °C during thermal exposure/work in heat. Increase in body temperature over a hot day has been considered a test of adaptability and gross deviation has been attributed to poor adaptation (Rhoad, 1944).
Urban heat island effect is defined as having a higher air and surface temperature (Leiwen 35). Those heat effects make cities a warmer environment due to their buildings and how much air pollution they have. The chemicals caused by these heat effects can reduce the quality of bodies of water and damage marine ecosystems (Leiwen 36). Those chemical wastes are causing many problems, hurting the environment, and hurting the people and animals around it. With the fast growth of leaking chemicals, current facilities cannot detect, clean, and make other facilities to rid
5.1 Introduction to Climate and Weather According to Oxford Dictionaries, climate means the weather conditions mainly in a region overally or over a sustained period of time. Climate takes hundreds, thousands, or even millions of years to change. In some cases, the climate of a place is portrayed with charts this way.
The most intense greenhouse effects include water vapors, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Moreover, the other chemicals such as CFC also contribute to the green house effects. It should be noted that the absorbed energy from the atmosphere by the earth directly increase the surface temperature. The Earth only has the tendency to absorb and maintain 33 degree Celsius temperature, and rapid increase lead to destruction of the human life on Earth. Furthermore, the human activity such as burning of the fossil for the essential electricity is also the primary source of increasing climate change in the world (Ranwala & Miller,