Cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety (Source:A cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0005-7967(97)00022-3) The above model illustrates the experience of anxiety in social circumstances for people with social anxiety. The assumption made by people with social anxiety is that people are immanently negatively critical. Positive appraisals are of fundamental importance. The occurrence of several processes to promote and maintain social phobia within this
Explain two alternative frameworks for understanding mental distress. These are: a) Biological: The parts of the model are made up with: The functioning of an individual’s body The individual’s biological history – DNA, Bloodline, genetic The chemical balance and processes of an individual’s brain. b) Psychological: This part of the model is made up with: The cognitive functions and behaviours Disorders of thinking and reasoning i.e. self-control Perception and Motivation. 4.
1. What is implicit personality theory? This theory is a set of assumptions that a person makes, often unconsciously, about the correlations between personality traits, including such widespread expectations of impression positively correlated with generosity, so that a person who is cold is perceived as being likely to be serious. Some implicit personality theories also include correlations between psychological and dimensions of impressions. Additionally, specific patterns and biases an individual uses when forming impressions based on a limited amount of initial information about an unfamiliar person.
Secondary appraisal is a perception regarding our ability to cope with an event that follows primary appraisal. He needs to decide if he can cope or not. If he decides he cannot cope he will experience too much stress which is not good for him. If he decides to cope he can do so in different ways. He could choose to deal with problem focused coping (a strategy in which we tackle life’s challenges head-on) or emotion-focused coping—a strategy in which we try to place a positive spin on our feelings or predicaments and engage in behaviors to reduce painful memories (Pearson
The thinner structure of the brain becomes damaged caused by synthetic estrogen and progestrogen. The part of the brain that becomes affected is the lateral orbitofrontal cortex that is where decision making, emotions and memories come from. A female is psychologically changed by the contraceptives which makes a man change as well. Birth control has affects on both men and women physically, socially and psychologically. The decision of taking birth control is normally a women’s decision because it is her body, but when you’re in a relationship it affects
Previous studies have shown its implication to the phenomenon of self-serving bias. Showing that cultural differences, degree of relationship, protection of individual’s self-esteem, role of individual, academic achievement, and expectancy are factors that is affected and can affect an individual’s behavior. However, in addressing the question on the explanations of why people display self-serving bias. Some researchers suggest that self-serving bias is driven by their motivation process or they are driven by the manner on how they make judgments (Anderson & Slusher, 1986; Tetlock & Levy, 1982). In motivation-driven explanations of self-serving bias, two factors can be seen as distinct motives: self-enhancement (self-worth) and self-presentation.
As per Steele and Aronson’s study conducted in 1995, it was introduced that a stereotype threat is the ideology of being at risk of negative conformant and characterisation based on ones self and/or social group. The phenomenon of a stereotype threats is widely incorporated into society in order to influence or impact an outcome and/ or performance. A stereotype threat can play a positive or a negative role in the standard intellectual and cognitive assessments of a group. However, these stereotypical threats predominantly carry negative connotations that allow individuals of a group to conform to the negative stereotypes associated with their self or social group. The psychological and behavioural outcomes of an individual can be significantly altered as a result
The concept of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy is to focus on uncovering irrational beliefs that have the potential to lead to unhealthy negative emotions. Negative irrational thoughts and beliefs can hinder a person in their pursuit goals and their overall perception of themselves. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy offers a client the ability to change their perception or at least consider an alternative to an irrational negative pattern of beliefs. Albert Ellis states that it is the individual’s belief about the situation which will result in either a negative or positive emotional response (Counseling Resource, 2014). REBT uses a three
The most basic classification divides it into two different categories: problem based coping and emotion based coping (Compas, Malcarne,& Banez,1992; Lazarus and Folkman, 1984). Under problem based coping an individual makes a conscious effort to alter the problem or the demanding situation causing the stress. It is divided into different classes such as solving-problems; planning, looking for new information, an attempt to achieve something, trying to decrease competing behavior. Whereas emotion based coping deals with controlling the emotions that are aroused due to the stressful situations (Crocker, Kowalski, & Graham). Emotion based coping is further divided into denial, relaxation, blaming oneself, avoiding or accepting the situation and wishful thinking.
After determining the source which may affect elderlies’ self-respect, they can be assisted to gain awareness of their negative thoughts or beliefs in their minds. Focusing on the cognitive content of an individual’s reaction to a stressful event is essential to gain understanding of the nature of concern and changing their thought (Corey, 2011, p. 328). This step can be supported by one of the step in crisis intervention, examination of alternatives, in which the individual is assisted to examine cognitive patterns and find ways to reframe the situation and view of the problem (James,
The patient identifies the most specific image related to the memory and whatever negative feelings of self-worth which are tied to this event. This is processed along with the sensations and feelings of the patient tied to this event. These feelings may include fear, nausea, headaches, crying, trauma, and inadequacy. The patient is given a positive image and belief to substitute for the problematic feeling or event. The intensity of the negative emotions should diminish during this treatment and a positive emotion will root the patient.
Pedophilia should be considered a mental disorder because just like a mental disorder, pedophilia affects a person 's emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. A mental illness is influenced by distress, similarly to as what Professor DeRuiter stated in the film; that pedophiles build so much stress and that it causes them to act on their urges. There should be treatments that can help lower distress, such as interventions and/or support groups. The book Family Violence Across the Lifespans states that some researchers concluded that pedophilia may be caused by neurobiological factors (231), so medical treatments should be made more accessible to people seeking help as well as medical confidentiality protecting the individual 's identity unless the individual confesses to a crime. Medical treatments such as chemical castration should be enforced and not voluntary and should be considered as a form of treatment, not
Fundamental Attribution Error Behavior is something that changes depending on the situations that you are exposed to. This supports the fact that your behavior is also determined by different social factors that you that you could be in. In this essay I will describe the different research/case studies that’s supports the idea that our behavior changes when we are in the presence of others such as, the presence of an authority figure, the presence of a group on bystanders observing the same emergency as us, pressure from a group to change your belief even though you are wrong, social expectation to live up to a role and lastly a good or bad leader. The first social situation that shows that we change our behavior in the presence of others is when we are in the presence of an authority figure. Stanley Milgram conducted a study with participants that were chosen as the subject, and affiliates of Milgram were the victims.
If the individual’s expectations have been violated, it can cause a positive or negative perception about the situation and the person they are interacting with (Griffin, 2014). An individual will implement a positive or negative value on the behavior of the person that has violated their expectation. Furthermore, they will evaluate the person in order to conclude weather they will bring either more rewards or punishments into their lives in the future (Griffin, 2014). The theory helps us understand interactions and their complexities because it takes into account that people’s expectations and behaviors towards situations are different due to cultural values and their personal experiences (Burgoon, 1993). Therefore, the place and the way they grow up strongly influences the expectations they have within their interactions/relationships.
The study of attitudes has helped us to further our insight into understanding human behaviour. Models such as the Tripartite model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour provide a structure to how our attitudes influence our behaviour. Attitude is defined as a general feeling of evaluation towards an object/person, positive or negative (Hogg, 2013). The Tripartite Model of Attitudes proposed by Rosenberg and Hovland provides a structure to how our attitudes towards something affect our behaviour. They believe that our attitudes are broken up into Affective, Behavioural and Cognitions.