Slavery in the Americas and the Ottoman Empire Slavery is a system of social relations in which a person (slave) is owned by another person (slave owner). At first, criminals and debtors became slaves, but later, civilians were forced to work for their masters. Slavery became common after the Age of Exploration. A massive transatlantic slave trade flourished because there were not enough people to work on the plantations in the Americas. Europeans learnt that an unlimited number of laborers from Africa could be loaded on ships and turned into slaves in the Americas.
The captives were treated with a lot of cruelty and hostility as they were being forced into the ships to be transported for slavery. They were later compelled to work and live under new intolerable conditions. Most of the slaves who were captured dwelled in small villages in West Africa and were usually kidnapped at dawn when they were fresh for their duties of the day. Their village would be raided by their enemy tribe which would then burn the hurts, their residing places to the ground. Those who escaped the capture were very few since most of those who were captured unknowingly were taken to the slave ships as some were killed when they tried to resist being frustrated, tortured as well as bullied.
Martin Luther King once said: “We are not makers of history, we are made of history.” We all can connect with this quote to a certain degree. A lot has happened in our history and as a result of that we are who we are today, even though sometimes history is not in our own hands to chose. The book, Soul by Soul by Walter Johnson tells the readers story of slavery that's took place on nineteenth-century, before the civil war on America by going away from the cotton plantations into the slave market itself which was the heart of the domestic slave trade. The story takes place on New Orleans.
Early modern slavery is typically defined as the forced labor of millions of Africans between the 16th and 19th centuries. It was filled with brutality, sickness, and inhumanity perpetrated by white, colonialist Europeans who were searching for wealth in a foreign land through cash crops and servitude. However, there was a different kind of slavery perpetrated in the African continent: servitude where “they were only prisoners of war, or…had been convicted of kidnapping or adultery” (Equiano, 30). Olaudah Equiano’s narrative, published in 1789, reveals a story of slavery perpetrated by his own people. This revelation brings to the light the difference in societal standing and ultimate economic worth of the individuals.
Equiano however, did not encounter most of the harsh conditions that many African Americans faced. The life of Equiano was very unique and remarkable. The slave trade showed how Europeans treated African American Slaves versus how Africans treated slaves. Equiano was sold and traveled too many countries. Equiano was also very privileged.
Imagine if the cotton businesses had no slaves the Southerners would have to create their own factories, for example, if they did have to create their own industry, they would have to sell all their slaves and that’s one of the last things that they wanted to do. If the South had no slaves, they would have to do everything all by themselves. According to page 242 it says " planters would have had to sell slaves to raise the money to build factories, most wealthy southerners had their wealth invested in land and slaves. Planters would have had to sell slaves to raise the money to build factories. Most wealthy southerners were unwilling to do this.
Ira Butler claims that there are two distinct institutions of slavery: “slave societies” and “societies with slaves”. In slave societies, the labor of slaves serves as the only major means of production for goods. Comparatively a society with slaves is an institution of slavery were slave labor is marginal to the central productive process. Butler states that in societies with slaves slavery is just one form of labor among many. Historically it 's believed that New England fell into the category of a society with slaves however, when analyzing the institutions of African slavery in New England to that of the U.S South, Caribbean, and West Indies its clear that African slavery New England fall into the category of slave society.
Trafficking is always characterized by elements of exploitation through fraud, coercion and other illegal means. Human trafficking is a difficult to understand and complicated issue. It is not confined to a particular country or region but it has spread its roots more intensely in the third world countries especially in the subcontinent. However, if we talk about its connection in Pakistan it is quite distressingly connected with our society. In terms of definition, Human trafficking is modern-day slavery and involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain some type of labor or commercial sex act.
and around twenty thousand victims are trafficked internally per year. China is designated as a source, destination, and transit country for children and women trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation and forced labour. Mostly trafficking occurs in the borders of china. Women from china has been trafficked out to many countries such as Africa, Asia, Latin America, Europe, and north America. Some of the Chinese women are trafficked to aboard with false promises of legitimate and work only for sexual exploitation and forced into prostitution.
The slavery in colonial America started around 1600 with indentured slaves, but after some time, people were often sold and bought unintentional. In 1619, the first African slaves arrived in Virginia and by 1820, almost four Africans for every European had crossed the Atlantic. In the late 1800‘s around 12.5 million slaves had been shipped from Africa, and 10.5 million had arrived in America. Prices of slaves varied a lot over time, and it was expensive to own a slave, but it was gainful. In order to make sure the effectiveness of slaves, most slave owners supplied only the bare minimum of food and shelter needed for the slaves to survive and then forced them to work twenty-four hours a day.
In 2016 there has been 135 human trafficking cases reported in Missouri (Hotline Statistics 2016). Since 2012 human trafficking has gotten worse by 87 more cases reported to be exact. These last four years human trafficking has only increased in being a problem in the US. To my knowledge I did not know how major of a problem this issue was and has become. On the other hand the video proves that all types of human trafficking can be found anywhere and is everywhere.
Human trafficking is the fastest growing crime in the entire world and is considered modern day slavery. Almost 80% of trafficking is through sexual exploitation, which means that it primarily affects women and girls (UNODC, 2009). Victims are often tricked into the business through promise of work or a better life and sometimes just randomly stolen right from their homes. However, this is not just an issue overseas. Michigan is listed as the state with the second highest rates of human trafficking.
Europeans in the times of the slave trade from time to time vindicated enslavement of Africans by indicating that slavery by that time occurred on that continent. African communities established many forms of slavery and confinement that mixed from a kind of labor position to something that is more like slavery in which human beings are measured as things. Slavery has been around since the beginning of time. The intentions of slavery is mainly financial, slaves were affordable and non- essential. They were often shipped form poverty- stricken areas with an outstanding source of labor at a low price.
(Michelle Alexander, 2010:58) The three strikes law targeted the communities affluent with minority groups. At the turn of the 21st century the majority that entered the prison system were African Americans and Latinos. (Michelle Alexander, 2010) The reason behind mass incarceration was due to the crack down on the deteriorating communities where the majority of minorities lived. Authors Scott Ehlers, Vincent Schiraldi and Jason Ziedenberg of Still Striking Out: Ten Years of California’s Three Strikes (2004) report that African Americans in prison because of the three strike law is higher per every 100,000 African American than Whites and Latinos in California. (U.S. Census Bureau
To slave a person is the most inhumane act one can commit, and unfortunately was very popular during the 18th century. However, have you ever wondered the different impacts slavery caused between men and women? Both Frederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs showcase, through their writings, the horrors of slavery, and contrast the many similarities and import differences between the experience of slavery between genders. One of the similarities of slavery for both genders was their allowances. Both men and women were only allowed a certain amount of food and clothing to survive throughout a year.