The Weimar Republic was established in 1919 and was a democratic state to replace imperialism because the Treaty of Versailles stated that Germany had to become a democratic country. The Weimar Republic was significantly weak due to hyperinflation, the economic collapse, the Treaty of Versailles, and other issues that were present during that time. The Weimar Republic faced chaos and violence with the Communist uprising and the Kapp Putsch. The Kapp Putsch, which took place in March 1920, was a threat to the new government and was assisted by General Luttwitz who led a group of Freikorps men (Kapp Putsch). They were against Friedrich Ebert’s beliefs about the humiliation of the Treaty of Versailles.
Fascism under Mussolini and Nazism under Hitler started to rise in Europe during the interwar periods. Both totalitarian governments brought great impact to their nations and international peace, which eventually led to the outbreak of WWII. The German economy suffered severe setbacks after the end of World War I, partly because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. The government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt; the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, and food riots. When the government failed to make the reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr.
First, the German thinker, Marx, and a letter called “ Manifesto of the Communist Party”, bring about the concept of communism that was being used in many areas back in the olden days. For Mussolini, the Italian revolutionary, who adopted socialism but discovered later that it was not yet the right answer for himself. He was supported by the King Victor Emmanuel, then he became the prime minister, and established fascism for his own ruling. Initially, communism focuses on a classless society while fascists believe in a class-based society. As a result of capitalism, there were class struggles between “Bourgeoisie” the middle class and “Proletarians” working class.
The Great Depression revealed the dangers of supplanting real industry and enterprise with a “casino economy” in which the high interest rates impose an intolerable and unsustainable debt burden on private income. Hence regulations were put in place to curb over speculation and increasing interest rates. Glass Steagall Act was one of them. However regulations became a target of Reagan administration reformers. For example, the Garn-St. Germain Act allowed S&L associations to take demand deposits and make commercial and industrial loans.
This was to shore up confidence and flood the economy with liquidity. This was also the main influence to decrease the fund rate to 1.75% by the end of 2001. However, 9/11 was followed by a series of confidence battering shocks which slammed the economy (the scandal of Enron, the space shuttle Columbia disaster, the war in Iraq, hurricane Katrina). To counter each of these shocks, the Fed were forced to lower interest rates even more. By July 2003, after thirteen cuts, Federal Funds rates had dropped as low as 1% (Farrokh
They beat Austria, France and Russia, then carved up Poland, and later through the way of Prussian dynasty war to completed the unification of the German Empire. The influence of the dynasty war and the Prussian militarism has cast a shadow over the future of German Fascism. On the economic side, the outbreak of the world financial crisis promoted the development and expansion of the German fascists.
Germany was required to pay 132 billion gold marks, or 367 billion US dollars, over a course of thirty years (C, Source 2). This evidence supports the idea that the reparation payments helped cause World War Two because it not only angered the Germans, it also humiliated them. Due to this anger and humiliation, Germany paid little of these payments in the 1920s (C, Source 2). In 1933, German Adolf Hitler came into power and ceased all reparation payments. Germany also lost significant land because of The Treaty of Versailles such as Alsace and Lorraine.
It was around this time that he married Johanna von Puttkamer. Bismarck entered politics before the revolutions of 1848 started; he gained a substitute seat as an ultraconservative in the upper house of the Prussian parliament. Multiple revolutions broke out in Germany because of disproportionate industrial and agricultural distribution causing the lower classes to suffer. These revolutions dissolved the German Confederation and brought about a new parliament that was short-lived; it dissolved quickly because of its inability to align themselves with either the working class or the conservatives. When the revolutions sparked in Prussia, Bismarck urged King Frederick William IV to suppress the uprising.
Political issues within Germany were, to a large extent, responsible for the collapse of the Weimar regime in 1933. Weimar Germany was a nation of instability at the end of the 1st World War, and the democratic regime imposed by the Treaty of Versailles was seen as an embarrassment to the German people. Despite William L. Shire's description of the Weimar constitution being "on paper, the most liberal and democratic document … the twentieth century had ever seen", the Weimar democracy was a system of governance that was "born with a hole in its heart" The political climate of Weimar Germany was extremely unstable as a result of a provision within its constitution, Article 22, which called for proportional representation in German elections. This system of strict proportional representation allowed for the volatile nature of the electorate to express itself without hindrance within the Reichstag. This led a vast plethora of parties being elected into the parliament, with some parties gaining seats within the chamber with only 0.4% of the vote.
After the halt in June, holdings started falling naturally as debt matured and were projected to fall to $1.7 trillion by 2012. The Fed's revised goal became to keep holdings at $2.054 trillion. To maintain that level, the Fed bought $30 billion in two- to ten-year Treasury notes every