The decline and fall of the Roman Empire in the West between A.D. 197 and A.D. 476 There have been many theories as to what caused the decline and eventual fall of the great Roman Empire in the West between A.D. 197 and A.D. 476. Political, military and economic issues were mainly responsible for the fall of Rome in the West. There is strong proof that these were the three main causes. To expand on political problems, things such as corruption were an enormous contributing factor as well as lack of strong leadership. Military issues were those of the problematic situation of expanding borders, barbarian knowledge of military tactics, and the resulting end in loss of control over the Empire.
In chapter 10 Howard Zinn talks about the civil war, the disadvantages and advantages between the poor and rich. The poor have always been the bait in America, due to the lack of money and power. When war is in progress, most of the time the poor are demanded to go to war because the wealthy groups have the money and power to escape from death. “ To give people a choice between two different parties and allow them, in a period of rebellion, to choose the slightly more democratic one was an ingenious mode of control. Like so much in the American system, it was not devilishly contrived by some master plotters; it developed naturally out of the needs of the situation”( Zinn, 200).
Rome collapsed due to various reasons such as its sheer size that lead to various problems within the Empire, the rise of Christianity that caused disputes within the people of the Empire and also external invasion that was caused due to the weakening of the Empire. Rome’s gigantic size was too difficult to be governed which was one of the root causes that led to the collapse of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire was too extensive for Rome to reign over, it kept on expanding and the Empire continued to conquer various places. Due to the expansion, it was hard for the rulers and government officials to communicate and protect the Empire. Therefore Romans ruled over more land than they could manage.
In 1025, the death of Basil II marks the date that Byzantium began to decline. For the next 59 years, the empire would be misgoverned by thirteen inept emperors that would bring the once overwhelmingly rich and powerful state to the verge of collapse. The following years the emperors spent lavishly on buildings, churches and largesse, draining the imperial treasury. Adding to the financial crisis, the emperor Romanus VII was under the burden of wealthy landlord’s to relieve them from the pressure of taxation. He abandoned Basil II policy requiring the rich to pay the unpaid taxes of the poor.
Many citizens found that the policy was an insurance to make the price of money rise. By doing so, farmers found themselves to be on the negative side, unable to benefit from this sudden increase in money. Farmers were one of the few groups that were affected greatly by the Monetary Policy, as they were the ones who lived in an area where money was limited. When government officials helped big industries become profitable “and agriculture less so, banks became increasingly hesitant to lend money to farmers. When they did, it was at a higher rate of interest, making it even more difficult [for farmers] to profit.” Tariffs came around later in the period, causing many farmers to compete with one another for money.
All of the imperial powers changed the societies they ruled into a more modernized state, bringing them closer to the rest of the world economically, politically, and culturally. It also tightened the links between world societies. Yet, at the same time, these global empires nurtured divisions between the world’s people. The introduction to modern weapons and racial beliefs brought the Western nations to think of themselves as superiors amongst the rest of the world. And it was this feeling of superiority that caused tensions to rise exponentially eventually leading into the Cold War.
Around the time of three-hundred CE, the amount of power started to decrease for Rome, Italy. Lots of the Roman emperors and people were killed at this dreadful time. But what really caused this sudden downfall? Will we ever really know? I think the three main reasons are: Natural disasters, foreign invasions, and the city’s military problems.
Both the empire started in the same way and ended up in a similar way. Both empires were once powerful under one well-educated emperor. After the death of that emperor, internal conflicts aroused, which led to the civil war. This became an advantage for the external opportunist that finally led the collapse of both the empire. Concisely, both empires collapsed because of internal conflicts and external pressure.
How did slaves affect the daily Roman economy? According to Kamm, A., & Graham, A. (2014), Rome required power supplied by the physical effort of human beings to build the powerful cities economically and militarily, so most of the people from the conquered lands became citizens or were sold as slaves. Slavery in the ancient world and in Rome was a fundamentally concerned to both the economy and even the social fabric of the nation. While it was commonly found throughout the Mediterranean region, and the Hellenistic regions in the east, it was not nearly so fundamentally concerned to others as it was to the prevailing of Rome, Scheidel, W. (1997).
Especially in the growing cities of the Northeast, economic growth was accompanied by a significant wondering of the gap between wealthy merchants and industrialists, on the one hand, and impoverished factory workers, unskilled dock workers, and seamstresses laboring at home, on the other. (189)." Before the market revolution in transportation, farming, and goods, families used to work for themselves at their farms, and exchange goods among their neighbor; all without the need for money. Nevertheless, the market revolution changed that, it contributed toward the production of goods that was now being manufactured increasing outside the home. And at the moment, they started exchanging money for goods, providing for the growth of the economy.
American capitalists took advantage of the newly-formed poor class and build their empires on the backs of child labor and underpaid, overworked laborers. Therefore, exploitation of capitalism widened the gap between the rich and poor classes of America, and both newly-formed classes developed reasons for the change. But, social unrest caused by this new economy and exploitation would lead to disastrous results in the
The businesses took advantage of their workers by extending work hours but also leaving their wages the same. They were trying to work them for every penny they could not caring who they were hurting in the process. The people also disfavored the new political system they did not agree with politicians no longer listening to the opinions of the people, they felt that they were being silenced and they could do nothing about it. The corporations may have lowered the costs of a few accommodations but it was outweighed by the unfairness the people had to deal with. The growing of large businesses in size, number, and influenced changed the United States severely.
After they gained power in these countries they commanded parts of countries for naval bases and resource plantations. To take over most countries they used the big stick policy, give us this or we will use our power against you and ruin you, so make friends with us and it 's all good. Since the gaining economical and political power so crucial social darwinism started. whoever had the most power would take it all. The united states had achieved lots of power, economically and politically.
Farmers were enticed by high prices persuaded farmers to grow a single “cash” crop. Profits were then used to buy food and manufactured goods. In the 1880s, bankruptcy fell into the nation and caused low prices and a deflated currency. As a result, there was not enough dollars to go around and caused debt. Farmers were forced to by expensive machinery to increased crop production, which were sold at low prices and caused even more debt..In a vicious circle, their farm machinery increased their output of grain, lowered the price, and drove them even deeper into debt.