Family And Familial Relationships

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Peer Support
Although many times family can provide sufficient support for an individual, familial relationships do not always produce the positive outcomes desired. When these interactions are weak sources of support, it may reduce an individual’s ability to cope with challenges (DuBois, et.al., 2002). In such cases, peer connections may become increasingly important sources of support. Friendship quality has been assumed to have direct effects on many aspects of social development, including self-esteem and social adjustment (Berndt, 2002). For example, peers can affect an individual’s attitudes about school or may encourage substance use. Individuals often strive to fit in with their peers. They often adopt similar beliefs and values to their friends. With this, they may shape their identities around their friends’ attributes. Just as family can influence identity achievement by providing support through earlier challenges (i.e. trust, autonomy, and initiative), friends can affect one’s identity by helping an individual successfully negotiate developmental crises (Bosma & Kunnen, 2001). For example, friends can foster industry in one another by developing their abilities to work and cooperate with others. Getting along with others may expand an individual’s peer network. A large peer network provides more opportunities to explore more alternatives to current beliefs.

High quality friendships that demonstrate loyalty, trust, self-disclosure, and intimacy may enhance

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