One of the most important factors that affect a child 's development is the relationship and attachment of the child with their primary caregiver. John Bowlby studied the development of the child; he was interested in how childhood relationships affected kids as they grew older and became adults. He was also concerned with the relationship of the child and primary caregiver and how they interacted, and the effect this had on later life. Bowlby 's theory established that children’s earliest relationships shaped their later development and characterized their human life, "from the cradle to the grave"(Bowlby, 1998). The attachment style that an infant develops with their parent later reflects on their overall person.
challenges the parents’ ability show affection and support to their children, which affects the latter’s behavior negatively (Banovcinova et al., 2014). Family Structure A family is generally defined as a unit of two or more people who (1) live together; (2) are related by blood, marriage, adoption, or consensual unions; and (3) bear and provide care for children (Bahadur & Dhawan, 2008; Benokraitis, 2008). However, families still differ according to their family structure that is whether they belong to a nuclear or extended family. Family structure determines how roles, authority, and relationships are arranged in a family (Bahadur & Dhawan, 2008). As families spend their daily lives together, it is interesting to determine the relationships within their members and with other people they are living with in a household.
Social and physical environments in the home and the social environment in the classroom impact early childhood development. This paper discusses: the impact of the social environment in the home on early childhood development; the possible negative impact of the physical environment on a preschool child in a Guyanese home; and the impact of a positive social environment in the early childhood classroom. Early childhood development is“a set of concepts, principles, and facts that explain, describe and account for the processes involved in change from immature to mature status and functioning.” (Katz, 1996, p. 7) The physical environment refers to; the nature of the physical home surroundings including its cleanliness; the safety of the home and the security which the home offers. “Human social environments encompass the immediate physical surroundings, social relationships, and cultural milieus within which defined groups of people function and interact (Casper & Barnett, 2001, para. 3).
Family structure is one of the important factors that is being associated to the development of behaviors and skills needed to achieve in school. Strauss (2009) suggested that student’s success or failure is related in home life which is credited to Dr. Rich in developing MegaSkills program and in making parental involvement as a requirement for schools. It is supported by a study conducted by Williams (2007) which showed that a significant impact exists between family structure and student behavior at school and academic success. This is also related to Baker (2011) examination of family structure and academic achievement using One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) among 262 high school students which suggested that academic behavior was significantly affected by family structure. In addition, the association between family instability and children’s problem behavior in a sample (n = 1,015) drawn from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development was investigated by Cavanagh & Huston (2006) which showed that differences in problem behavior varied by family structure at birth and the emotional, social and material resources in the family.
An individual usually spend the most of the time with one’s family, particularly one’s parents. Therefore, it is likely that one’s parents have an extensive amount of influence on their development. Even though those children have increased dependence and spend the less time with their parents when they are growing, it would still seem likely that parents would have an impact on their personal development (Hinkelman, & Luzzo, 2007). It was found that those students who were overly dependent on their families were more likely to experience challenges when they have to make those career choices (Kinnier, Brigman, & Noble, 1990). This study helps provide a clear idea about parental/familial variables that may hinder an individuals’ career development.
Literary Review Definition and History Birth order contributes to why the children in the same family develop different personality traits and relationship statuses (Badger and Reddy 46). More broadly, birth order affects children mainly in two ways; “de-identification” or “social learning”. De-identification, discovered by the scientist Alfred Adler, is a process in which the child, usually later borns, exerts themselves to become different from other children, usually to gain parental attention. Inversely, social learning occurs when younger siblings imitate or model older siblings. In this case, the younger sibling will acknowledge the older sibling’s success and healthy parent- child relationship and duplicate his/her behavior expecting
Basically, most of the students are interested to be involved in the activity of appreciating a literary work, however, some results of their works show that they need some more interesting and attractive instructional media in the process of learning. It can be said that to some parts of literary works the students should be introduced to some media of electronic, such as: movie, DVD, VCD. Therefore, this research attempted to apply a new medium in their literary class, which is a movie. This research focused on how the students’ ability in order to appreciate a movie. Metz (1971) explains that “a movie is a particular movie message which has its own beginning and ending, and movie in general designates one or more specific messages proper to all movies”.
Parents play a range of different roles in the lives of their children, including teacher, playmate, disciplinarian, caregiver and attachment figures. Of all these roles, their role as an attachment figure is one of the most important in predicting the child’s later social and emotional outcome (Benoit, 2004). Bowlby (1988) first proposed that people develop an internal working model of the self and of significant others, which are formed based on one’s early experiences of caregiver ability. Once formed, these models are believed to guide distinctive patterns of cognition, regulation of emotions, and social behaviour in parental as well as in subsequent close relationships and thus influence adult interpersonal functioning (Collins, 1996;
There are various ways for children to acquire vocabulary in a second language. One of them is through storybook reading. It is an interesting medium in which it can enhance the children’s interest in reading and at the same time facilitate them in acquiring new words. The purposes of this study are to describe how storybook reading contributes to English vocabulary acquisition among young children (kindergarteners), and to explore whether the pictures in the storybook help children to deal with unfamiliar words. A storybook was read to the participants, and how helpful pictures were in the explanation of unfamiliar words in the storybook during the session was analysed.
Forero & Quevedo (2006) also discuss how parents and children used written productions in L1 and L2 to make sense of the world by expressing perceptions, feelings, suggestions and expectations. Similarly, Gao (2006) proposes that the family may influence children’s L1and L2 study directly and indirectly; directly when family members work as language learning advisors, coercers, and nurturers, training their children to be good language learners and indirectly when family members act as language learning facilitators and teacher’s collaborators, creating learning discourses and motivating students to learn language. The concepts above had a bearing on designing the inquiry and proposing an intervention in which teachers, parents and learners