Family Reflection

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has also been used to assess family functioning is the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES IV) by Olson (2011). While the FAD consisted of six dimensions, the FACES IV focused on two major dimensions: cohesion and adaptability. Cohesion and adaptability are dimensions that are commonly used to describe general family functioning (Lee & Gardner, 2010; Liu, Shono & Kitamura, 2008; Ievers, Brown, Lambert, Hsu & Eckman, 1998; Mathijssen, 1998). In addition, a number of studies also reported that family activity is also a dimension connected to family functioning (Ylven, 2013; Elliott, 2010; Spagnola & Fiese, 2007; Llewellyn, Dunn, Fante, Turnbull, & Grace, 1999). For the purpose of this study, family functioning will be measured…show more content…
It is the ability of a family to resolve problems (i.e., issues that may seem problematic to the “integrity and functional capacity” of the family) (Vliem, 2009; Miller et al., 2000, p. 170; Epstein et al., 1983, p. 172). It is important that family members are open (i.e., voicing out their thoughts and worries), flexible (i.e., being able to compromise), and tolerant when it comes to gathering information, making decisions, planning for the future, and addressing conflicts within the family (Ylven, 2013; Gupta & Singhal, 2004; Costigan, Floyd, Harter, & McClintock, 1997). Stressful situations strongly affect family functioning and so it is important to manage unexpected events (Ylven, 2013). Miller et al. (2000) subdivided problems into instrumental, which refer to the habitual problems of everyday life (e.g., managing finances or deciding on where to live); and affective, which are those related to emotions. Furthermore, problems that require unity among the family members need participation from the whole family to be solved, e.g., when to re-establish the family’s morality or re-unite the family when one member dies. Problem solving is essential among families of children with impairments for they need to cope with daily stress (Ylven, 2013; Lee & Gardner, 2010); families that experience less conflict will likewise experience less strain in providing care for…show more content…
The quality of the relationship between family members is reflected in the way a member interacts with another (van As, 1999) like the give-in-take of thoughts or discussing misunderstandings (McCreary & Dancy, 2004), and sending and receiving messages about family matters (Drotar, 1997). It will focus on whether verbal messages are clear in terms of content and direction (i.e., the supposed receiver of the message actually gets the information that is intended to be sent) (Miller et al., 2000; Epstein et al., 1983). The family’s communication skills are important for effective problem solving (Ylven, 2013), which often depend on “clear, direct, none motion-driven communication” (McDaniel & Pisani, 2012; Vliem, 2009, p. 80). Moreover, functional families must have a climate of mutual trust. Meaning, there should be open expression of warmth, affections or emotions, opinions and responses (van As, 1999; Schor, 1995). In addition, similar to problem-solving, effective communication is achieved if there is openness, flexibility and tolerance in the family (Ylven, 2013; van As, 1999; Schor, 1995). However, if families avoid a healthy way of communicating, poor interaction patterns may occur; there may be episodes of power conflict, misunderstanding, criticizing, and trouble among family members (van As, 1999; Kaverman,

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