The present paper is an approach to analyze violence against women specially concentrating on domestic violence, causes/factors contributing towards violence against women, the statistical data which includes crimes committed against women in India and some important measures to prevent this spreading malady
This is in addition to the societal expenses related to delivering and maintain health care, justice-related services to people who are victimized including the costs related to the criminal justice response to the accused (Johnson and Dawson 2011). In 2009, 76% of women who experienced violence disclosed only to family, friends and their neighbours (Impact of violence against women, 2015). The consequences of violence against women in can be far-reaching in general. The experiences of violence indirectly have the chances of reminding others in the society of the potential risk of being victimized also which in return increases the fear level within the society (Johnson and Dawson 2011). In particular, children are more likely to witness spousal violence.
In earlier times, violence against women was a result of the prevalent atmosphere of ignorance and feudalism. Today violence against women is an uncontrollable phenomenon, which is a direct result of the rapid urbanization, industrialization and structural adjustment programs which are changing the socio-economic scenario of our country. "Violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, which have led to domination over and discrimination against women by men and to the prevention of the full advancement of women" (United Nations Declaration1993) Domestic violence has attracted much attention of the sociologists in India since the decades of 1980s. Violence affects the lives of millions of women, worldwide, in all socio- economic and educational classes. It cuts across cultural and religious barriers, threatening the right of women to participate fully in society.
Both men and women can do feminist research. However, many feminist researchers, believe that nothing is separate from social life and experiences, nor does it exist outside the social . We also believe that men and women experience the social world differently, in turn, experience research and leadership differently. Therefore, feminist research methods must reflect feminist ontology, epistemology, and methodology which are developed from the experiences of women.Another way feminist research differs from mainstream research is that the feminist researcher makes sense of the world and produces generalized knowledge-claims on the basis of experiences. Feminist researchers also treat knowledge as situated because they make the assumption that particular structures are defined as facts external to and constraining upon people.
To break the cycle of domestic violence the individual would have to leave the relationship and seek out help through family, friends, police, medical psychologist. This paper points out how domestic violence can impact a family, and how to cope with the problems resulting from domestic violence. According to Hidrobo and Fernald (2014) when women are victimized in a relationship, they receive mental and emotional problems as a result of intimate partner relationship. To better understand what is going on let’s look at the country of Ecuador cash transfer program, and how it relates to domestic violence. Cash transfer programs depend on a women’s education level to her partner.
It is theorized that the more resources a partner brings to the relationship, the more power he or she has, but it is less likely the partner will resort to violence. However, if his or her power is threatened by a partner’s education or job, violence may be used to reestablish dominance. Resource theory is similar to intimate terrorism (Arthur 149). Arthur has hypothesized that, “As levels of education, labor force, participation, and access to political roles for women increase, domestic violence will increase” (149). This has been hypothesized because men will feel threatened by the power of women and retaliate (Arthur
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines violence against women as “any act of gender-based violence that results in serious physical, sexual or psycho-emotional impairment to women, occurring in public or private life”. The literature indicates that it is a universal crime. Also, it is a serious public health problem due to its high morbidity (Krug et al., 2002). Sexual violence has been defined in the World Report on Violence and Health as any sexual act, attempts to obtain a sexual act, or acts to traffic for sexual purposes, directed against a person using coercion, harassment or advances made by any person regardless of their relationship to the victim, in any setting, including but not limited to home and work (Jewkes et al., 2002).
Lastly, I will discuss the limitations and future research recommendations of this research paper. The focus of this study was to investigate the area of workplace violence from the perspective of employees who hear about co-worker initiated violence. The present study aimed at examination of three main areas, the first being the effects of workplace violence on second order stakeholders.
(1991), Tauchen and Witte (1995), Bowluz and Seitz (2006), and Fox et al. (2002) use data samples collected in the USA, study of Macmillan and Gartner (1999) use a data sample in Canada, study of Anderberg et al. (2013) use data of domestic violence in England and Wales. Empirical results for those countries, where women may have a relative higher autonomy level compared to other developing countries, may be not applicable for women who live in a developing country, where they may have a lower autonomy level. However, those empirical results may still provide an initial reflection that a woman’s employment will decrease the probability of domestic