The majority of production takes place in specific ponds throughout the year. This is done in a traditional way (extensive) with ponds of 1.5 ha and bigger, such as in Kerala and West Bengal or a semi-intensive way with ponds below 0.5 ha, as in Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Odisha.The latter production technique entails technical modifications and investment in fertilizers, pumps and construction. In traditional ponds different species (brackish and freshwater) are produced simultaneously and their growth rate is higher than in semi-intensive ponds. Often, farmers produce other products as well. 90% of the farmers in marine and brackish aquaculture own less than have difficulties obtaining finances for investments The shrimp production is however highly profitable.
And, the persistent of monoculture eventually leads to the loss of biodiversity. “A case can be made that the corn plant’s population explosion on places like Iowa us responsible for pushing out not only other plants but the animals and finally the people, too”(Pollan 38). The economic temptation encourages the practice of monoculture instead of running a diverse farm. Species are forced to leave and clear the land for corn plantation. However, biodiversity is vital for sustainable development because every livestock and crops are completing the food chain.
My claim was that the more plant cover their is the less pond animals or insects there are and their will be different types of species of insects in different areas. In experiment A the light intensity was 365.30 lux, the Depth of the pond was 69 cm, and I found 22 animals and 9 different species of them and there was no plant cover. In experiment B the light intensity of the pond was 110 lux, and the depth of the pond was 64 cm, and I found 14 animals and 7 different species of them and there was 1 plant cover, a lily pad. This proves my hypothesis was
Introduction Aquaponics is the sustainable organic solution for agriculture in the urban environment. Aquaponics is a combination of aquaculture, the raising of fish, and hydroponics, the growing of plants without soil. With a growing number of people moving to urban areas the demand for healthy organic produce and fish is increasing as the allocation of suitable land and water resources is decreasing. Therefore, new techniques must be found to produce food efficiently while protecting our limited resources (Childress, 2002, p.18). The system is not wasteful; it mimics an ecosystem, and has a low impact on the environment.
Marine aquaculture is the farming of seafood species that are indigenous to the ocean. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), “U.S. marine aquaculture primarily produces oysters, clams, mussels, shrimp, and salmon as well as lesser amounts of cod, moi, yellowtail, barramundi, seabass, and seabream.” Although marine aquaculture can take place in the ocean, using cages on the seafloor or in suspended water columns, most of the aquaculture systems in the U.S. are man made on land, using a recirculating system that reduces and recycles water. But like other forms of farming, aquaculture can lead to negative effects on the environment. The impacts vary upon the type of organism being farmed/raised and the type of system being used.
Aquaculture may be the answer to sustainable commercial production of fish by no longer overfishing natural habitats, but it also needs to regulated to prevent negative effects. Instead of protecting the natural fish the senate introduced a bill by Tom Tiffany that removed some regulation on the fishing industry. Among the negative aspects of the cause according to an environmental group: the DNR’s ability to give fish and fish eggs to fisheries, the expansion of fisheries, and no accountability of fish farm to protect surrounding aquatic life (Midwest Environmental Advocates). Policies need to be made to regulate where and how these fish farms run. For example, rather than giving control to the fisheries in determining how they use the land, regulations should determine what practice can be used to protect the ecosystems around aquaculture facilities.
There is use of manures from mulches, green manures, crop residues etc. in order to replenish nutrients into the soil. Diversification is being carried out in smaller agricultural environment through the growing of various crops on the same field of land to control erosion and improve on fertility. Zero grazing and exotic chicken rearing is being carried on a small piece of land out where by animals are kept and are provided with food in a specific confined location. There is an increasing effect of climate change which has led to drought which has led to the withering of the crops and reduction in crop and animal yield.
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0. Introduction Granted, several authors have made remarkable contributions on the concept of residents’ perception of aquaculture. Their studies, findings and contributions in the view of the researcher is presented in this chapter. 2.1 Perception of Aquaculture Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, molluscs (shellfish), crustaceans and marine plants, and involves practices such as regular stocking, feeding, and/or protecting stock from predators. Aquaculture takes place in inland, marine and coastal settings using a variety of methods, including raceways, cages, ponds, tanks, ropes, rafts and racks.
The aquarium would include many of the same abiotic/biotic factors, such as the same plants, same temperature, and similar water quality. The fish would either be fed their natural food, provided it is sourced sustainably, or an easier, healthier, and more eco-friendly option. As there are no threats, such as invasive species or predators, the population would flourish. When there is a decent amount of individuals who can reproduce (in order to maintain the population) you can capture/ harvest as many as needed. There is an array of humane methods to kill fish.
SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE ISDCS Assignment Industrial Agriculture System The industrial agriculture system, which is currently in practice in most developed and developing economies, is consuming water, fossil fuel, top soil and other natural resources at unsustainable rates which cannot be supported by the nature. It also leads to environment degradation in various forms including but not restricted to air and water pollution, diminishing bio-diversity, depletion of topsoil, and fish die-offs. Production of meat is also a major and disproportionate contributor to these problems. One of the major reasons for this is the fact that feeding grains to the animals for meat production instead of using it for direct human consumption involves a