376) This description of Fascism indicates a government that is involved in the lives of its citizens to an extreme degree. By illustrating the government as a “powerful form of personality”, Mussolini alludes to the Fascist characteristic of organicism, where the state is seen as an organic whole being. Mussolini continues his
Benito Mussolini’s definition of fascism states, “Fascism denies that the majority, by the simple fact that it is a majority, can direct human society.” (Benito Mussolini, What is Fascism?, page 1). Meaning only that the definition of Fascism illustrates how the use of democracy is irrelevant. The Democratic state being able to use the input of the majority to manipulate human society because of that is not one that is ideal due to the fact that a fascist state can accomplish all that a Democratic state can. This form of government appealed to Mussolini partly because he knew it was going to work in his favor and that he would have a sudden rise to power if he was able to efficiently implement the new form of government, or so he thought. Mussolini was somewhat like a test run for this new form of government in the sense that he fulfilled the true meaning of fascism.
Her job was to produce children. They felt the Bourgeois took advantage and abused what they had. The communists had no country. When the communists took over and created a dictatorship form of ruling they set up a number of rules which took all ownership from the Bourgeois. For example they made it illegal to own private land and heavily taxed the wealthy.’
Mussolini once stated that “The Socialists ask what is our program? Our program is to smash the skulls of the Socialists.” With the particular declaration, Benito Mussolini made it clear that his regime was mainly built upon violence and terror of people and classes that were inferior (Laqueur, 1996). The term of Italian Fascism is generally difficult to determine as there is the problem concerning the differentiation between the two different stages both of the movement and of the regime. (Payne, 1980). As Payne stated in his book “Fascism: Comparison and Definition” (1980), Fascism in general may be considered the most doubtful contemporary term in politics.
Labor makes things more valuable. Another reason that Locke believes his ideas for private property are moral is because it’s beneficial for society. Not only is it beneficial for the economy, but also because of the kind of people this kind of society produces. People who live in these kinds of societies are focused and hard-working. They are working towards making life better for themselves, and therefore
Communism believed in a classless society, while Fascism followed a dictatorship, but maintaining a dictatorship required the suppression of the people. Fascist ideology believed that “war alone brings up to their highest tension all human energies and puts the stamp of nobility upon the peoples who have the courage to meet it,” which requires constant violence to prove power (Lualdi 236). By 1924, Mussolini was able to gain 65% of the vote for fascism, but in 1933, the Nazi party only gained 44% of the vote, and even with a minority ruling party was able to gain control of the government. Both Mussolini and Hitler came into power through legal means, but Mussolini was named Prime Minister in the hopes of avoiding war but after gaining control. Yet after their legal rise into power, they used coercion and violence to further their fascist rulings.
From Mouffe’s and Laclau’s Marxist interpretation of populism, the communist regimes of the Cold War which had toppled down about a decade before they wrote their chapters, would probably be legitimate political systems. Those regimes were an extreme attempt to establish the rule of the “people”. Despite such populist features of communist regimes, Mouffe refuses to deal with populism other than right-wing populism, as discussed above. As a result, she would not give those communist regimes the negative label of populism. Likewise, Laclau would restrain from giving a negative label to those regimes, instead, he calls all forms of politics populistic (Laclau 2005, 47).
" ibid., p. xviii. There is much debate over whether Nazism and fascism are the same can of which overview good -a be found in Kershaw's The Nazi Dictatorship. In it, Kershaw acknowledges the extent of controversy and disagreement over the question of the nature of fascism and Nazism, and over whether Nazism can or cannot be described as a form of fascism. He explains that the Communists, for example, were clear that Nazism was simply a specific form of fascism i. e. "Hitler fascism" -a function of capitalism (see pages 18,24 and 36). Even some other, non-communist, interpretations stressed the importance of Hitler - saying that Nazism could most aptly be described as Hitlerism (see pages 20 and 39).
As a political ideology, Fascism can be described as a belief in anti-rationalism, violence, elitism, charismatic leadership and extreme nationalism. In 1930s, Japan adopted Fascism. In their own definition it was the belief of anti-democracy as the emperor was their leader and the supreme commander of the Army and Navy, and every Japanese citizen had to show absolute obedience and loyalty to the emperor. But why did Japan adopt Fascism? Japan adopted Fascism due to it worsening relation with the west, increasing support within Japan and failure of democracy and unresolved economical problems.