Introduction The success of a countries economy is dependent on several factors. One of which is the monetary policy. The monetary policy can achieve a wide range of goals by simply altering either the supply of money, interest rates, or both. With these two parts of the monetary policy, countries are able to influence their inflation, employment, consumption, and, investments, and more. But it is very difficult to be perfect in all those aspects in the economy with all the different existing viewpoints.
There are a large number of academic papers emphasizing on volatility in stock markets. It has been found that most papers are based on analysis of a single asset by using univariate GARCH models and the multivariate GARCH models have been employed to investigate as bivariate or tri-variate. However, the multivariate GARCH models also have been employed in many fields of studies. The multivariate GARCH models are considered to be an appropriate and effective approach which has an ability to examine the financial asset return volatility. Another interesting application of multivariate GARCH models is to investigate volatility spillovers or volatility transmission from one market to other markets.
Singapore’s solid economic performance replicates the accomplishment of its vulnerable and extrinsic-oriented growth plan. The reputation of services to the Singapore economy also nurtured, as showed by the growing share of the financial and business segments of the economy. Of equal significance to Singapore’s economic accomplishment is a set of sound macroeconomic policies intended at maintaining a beneficial environment for long-term investment in the economy. Fiscal policy is focused mainly at stimulating long-term economic development, rather than recurring transformations or distributing income. As an outcome of its beneficial fiscal position and constant budget excesses over the years, Singapore has accomplished a great level of foreign assets and the greatest independent acknowledgment rating for long-term foreign-currency debt in Asia.
It enabled easy mobilization of savings for investment in big industrial projects. The economic growth started to pick up as the availability of funds made it easy to finance a wide range of projects. Globally, technology became the decisive factor in the middle of the 19th century due to developments such as electricity and internal combustion engines. In the prehistoric days, the global economy relied on basic methods to expand and grow businesses. People traded on the basis of Barter System whereby there was a physical exchange of goods and it acted as a stumbling block in the expansion of the global
A large proportion of this increase is a result of immense purchases by eastern Asian monetary authorities, designed to prevent their currencies from appreciating relative to the dollar. This deficit is the biggest difference between globalization past and globalization present. A hundred years ago, the global hegemon-the United Kingdom-was a net exporter of capital, channeling a high proportion of its savings overseas to finance the construction of infrastructure such as railways and ports in the Americas, Asia, Australasia, and Africa. Today, its successor as an Anglophone empire plays the diametrically opposite role-as the world's debtor rather than the world's creditor, absorbing around three-quarters of the rest of the world's surplus
The industry has a strong multiplier effect of industrial growth because of its deep forward and backward linkages with several major components of the economy. The growth in productivity and efficiency helps other sectors directly or indirectly to speed up the efficiency of other sectors by the help of factor moments of goods and services in the economy. For this reason the industry is identified as one of the main force of rapid economic growth contributing notably to the GDP of the nation. Automobile industry has a very high potential which has been noted at different forums to increase both exports and employment. Increasing manufacturing output and providing employment are two goals which are attained by the industry help.
Foreign direct investment (FDI) include foreign ownership of productive assets, such as textile factories, mines and land. Due to increasing foreign investment one country can compete an international level and hence FDI is a important measure of increasing globalization. Any shape of Investment brings a progressive outcome in an economy, May on national level or international level. Now a day’s foreign direct investment (FDI) is very important part of international economics. IN case of Pakistan where markets and economy are developing so in this case Pakistan is much need of foreign investment.
To achieve world-class economic infrastructure and services, government pays extra attention in this sector. Singapore tax policies contain about the government funding that also aims to improve economic competitiveness as well as attracting the foreign investments in Singapore. The successfulness of Singapore fiscal policy is because of the combination of fair tax policies and careful expenditure program which also support the monetary policy in promoting sustained and non-inflationary economic growth. Singapore was the world’s third largest oil-trading center and as the center for refining petroleum. Petroleum and petrochemicals are among Singapore’s main industrial and economic sources of wealth.
Critically, in overall investment, private investment will be the key to supporting sustainable growth. Southeast Asia’s robust macroeconomic fundamentals are an important competitive advantage in attracting FDI. Such a competitive advantage will help to sustain strong FDI inflows into the region and support growth in domestic
Reports published by international donor and development agencies like USAID, JICA, GIZ, DFID, AfD, AusAID, UNIDO, UNDP, ADP and WB have also stressed on infrastructure development and private investment facilitation in diversified valued added products and markets to enhance stagnant exports with a view to achieve sustainable long term economic growth. Many of these development agencies have implemented competitiveness improvement programs in high growth sectors of the