The idea of new land to be discovered, full of plentiful crops and agricultural prosperity, now crushed by the dirt and dust found around every corner was devastating to not only the environment, but the people suffering. The already stamped down spirits of the families suffering from the effects of the Great Depression were only furthered by the lack of success in the Great Plains. “There were waves of so much dirt that, at times, there was zero visibility and everything was covered in dirt.” (americaslibrary.gov) In the literal sense, the people could no longer see what lies ahead of them, but internally, many were giving up hope on more than just their crops, but this crises ever ending. Finally, FDR’s Shelter belt Project began. The project calls for large-scale planting of trees such as red cedar and green ash to protect the land from erosion.
The Grapes of Wrath, written by John Steinbeck, took place during the Great Depression, a period in which business activity in the United States was impeded. Farmers had to work even harder to produce and pay off their debts, and when the depression hit, many of these farms were taken by the banks. Because they had no choice to stay, the farmers were forced to migrate with their families to the West in search for opportunities and jobs. In these desperate times, specific gender roles are quickly diminishing, which is shown through the Joad family. The men, focusing on supporting their family and finding work, also are helping out with womanly tasks.
Prices for farm products dangerously fell because of such large United States crop surpluses. Farm expenses had also risen much faster than the prices that farmers received and they did not reduce production, so prices for farm products stayed low and farmers’ income fell (McNeil, R. Hanes, and M. Hanes). President Coolidge had not taken much interest in the situation and said that farmers never made money (West and Stoff). Efforts from Congress that failed to protect United States farmers from foreign competition caused most United States farmers to take loans for their land and homes that they could not repay, which weakened their local banks and left them in debt (West and Stoff). On average, over six hundred banks failed every year between 1921 and 1929 (West and
George Armelagos and his colleagues found evidences that showed the farmers had bad health compared to hunter-gatherers due to the adaptation of agriculture. Diamond outlines the three main reason for the bad health of farmers, which includes varied diet of hunter-gathers compared to the few starchy crops eaten by farmers, the starvation of farmers due to the dependence on limited number of crops, and the spread of diseases in the crowded societies of people encouraged by agriculture. (Diamond 112) The adaptation of agriculture lead to the division of classes due to stored food and more possessions and encourage inequality of sexes as the health of women got worse due to frequenting giving birth. The hunter-gatherers adapted to agriculture due to the growing numbers of people, so they chose to increase food production rather than decrease the population. (Diamond
The people who did grasp their money spent less on items that they needed because prices skyrocketed, which in return got people getting laid off from their jobs, worsening the economy and losing even more money. Then, the environment started to play a role. Major dust storms swept through the prairies, leaving farmers with no crops and no ways to get food or make money. These additional effects to the stock market crash made the banks take people’s belongings, homes, vehicles, and anything that they had. The future looked bleak during this time for many.
The first stage of the Khmer Rouge regime was to send the 2 million cambodians to labor camps to work on farms where there wasn’t enough food, little medical attention and harsh working conditions (“Killing Fields”, 2008). They were forced out of their homes and forced on a long journey which showed to be dangerous for the very young and old, as many of them ended up dying along the way. Soon after many more died from starvation and random executions (Spangenburg and Moser 56-57). If you lived in Cambodia during that time, you would be sent to a labor camp without any choice, and without any information of where you were going. They didn’t give them any food when they were on a monthlong journey and many ended up starving.
During Westward Expansion farmers fell victims to the low pricing of the crops. Most farmers struggled to make a living due to key issues. There was often a high tax on railroads which had cut a large profit from the farmers. The farmers had no other option other than the railroad since the farmers were often very far off westward in the Great Plains, while the market with a large population was still in eastern cities like New York. Likewise farmers had to pay a middle man in the East to sell their commodities in the East, because the poor farmers were unable to travel all the way to the East to sell their products then come back to start farming for the next year.
In addition, these farm workers were also forced to labor in inhumane conditions, as growers ignored the state laws on working conditions. The farmworkers also had no toilets in these fields and were forced to give up their own wages so that they could live in metal shacks which had no electricity or plumbing. To put it simply, these Hispanic farm workers were faced with injustices and prejudices that bled into their own racial exploitation, the denial of human rights, and economic discrimination which America at the time was infamous for. After being dealt these injustices while working in the fields with his family in Delano, Chavez took on a personal and spiritual crusade that many predicted would be a failure. Lacking any form of influence, Chavez attempted to organize a labor union of his fellow farm workers or campesinos who he grew up with.
The famine was caused by a slew of things ranging from economic mismanagement to environmental neglect.The causes stem from the collapse of the Soviet Union as it was its largest supplier of food aid, fuel and most other commodities that north korea didn't have much of.North Korea has an ideology called Juche (주체) which practices ‘Self Reliance’ which isn't a viable option for the country, given that 20% of it's land is arable and yet is not very fertile. Farmers were put in communal farms where they had to plant and grow what they were told to. These farmers either had no interest or experience with the crops and would often grow and not yield as much crop as desired. In some cases a lot of forests were destroyed to make new land and crops were grown on hillsides which made the land unstable and inarable. The effects were catastrophic except to those in the very few and far between of the North Korean elite who lived under a system which prioritised them, the military and then the people.
Farmers could not afford the high taxes because of the limited land space to grow enough food because a portion of the land was reserved for growing indigo. They therefore paid all the money they could raise in taxes and in the process went hungry. This resulted in anger and resentment towards the landlords. Many tenants alleged that Landlords had used strong-arm tactics to exact illegal ceases and to extort them in other