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Feedback Theory

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.1 Introduction According to Cohen (1985) feedback “..is one of the more instructionally powerful and least understood features in instructional design” (p.33). In support of this claim, consider the hundreds of research studies published on the topic of feedback and its relation to learning and performance during the past 50 years (Mory, 2004 and Narciss & Huth, 2004). Within this large body of research, there are many conflicting findings and no consistent pattern of results. While (Galina & Lilija, 2012) stated that feedback is ‘a method used in teaching of language to improve performance by sharing observations, concerns and suggestions with regard to written work or oral presentation.’ This involves not only focussing on correcting learners,…show more content…
In fact, about one third of the total studies reviewed in two landmark meta-analyses (Bangert-Drowns et al.,1991; Kluger & DeNisi, 1996) demonstrated negative effects of feedback on learning. For instance, feedback that is construed as critical and controlling (Baron, 1993) often impedes efforts to improve performance (Fedor, Davis, Maslyn, & Mathieson, 2001). Other features of feedback that tend to hamper learning include providing grades or overall scores indicating the students’ standing relative to peers and coupling such normative feedback with low levels of specificity (Kluger & DeNisi, 1998), Additionally, interrupting a student who is actively engaged in problem solving with feedback from an external source has also been shown to inhibit learning (Corno & Snow, 1986). In regards to the various definitions stated in this review, feedback that has negative effects on learning is not quite definite or…show more content…
It is fundamental in our personal and professional lives. In academia, writing has become central as a measure for academic success. Students attempt to gain more control over improvement of English writing skill (Hamid, 2012). As writing process approach has transformed the method of teaching writing starting from students' final products to the process of writing, directive feedback has since become an important feature in writing instruction. This is due to how good feedback helps students understand their subject area and gives them clear guidance on how to improve their learning (Orsmond et al.,
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