Both of these tests are performed during the second trimester of a pregnancy, which begins at thirteen weeks, and the results of the tests return back information rather quickly at a time of one to two weeks. These tests are uncomfortable, quite costly, and ¨carry a one percent risk of miscarriage each¨ (Rebouché and Rothenberg 989). While the risk is small, the percentage of parents that chose to terminate the pregnancy after these invasive tests are much greater. Between the percentage of those who choose to terminate a pregnancy when the receive the news that their child has Down Syndrome and the risk of a miscarriage, there is an eighty-six percent chance that the baby will pass away (Press
Clomiphene citrate is revolutionary drug for infertility as it is easily available and cheaper amongst the other drugs for infertility. In easy terms Clomid is a first-line fertility treatment that blocks estrogen receptors and tricks a woman’s body into thinking it is low in estrogen. This trick stimulates the production of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), both of which are needed to induce
The endocrine system is such an important system to the body because it functions the bodies use of hormones. The body uses many different hormones and the endocrine system regulates these. When the glands of the endocrine system secrete the hormones, the hormones are put into the bloodstream to be sent to the different parts of the body. The glands that comprise the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the pineal gland which are all located in the brain, the thyroid, parathyroid, and thymus which are located in the throat, the adrenals and pancreas which are located in the body’s midsection, and the ovaries (female) and testes (male) which are located in the pelvic region. The system is so important because it regulates the body’s metabolism, growth and sexual development, digestion, heart rate, and many of the other body functions regulated by hormones.
Some of the tests for diagnosis during pregnancy include ultrasound, amniocentesis, and an AFP (alfa-fetaprotein) test. An ultrasound is a non-invasive test if done abdominally, and oftentimes spina bifida can be seen as a result of the ultrasound. Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure in which a needle is inserted into the amniotic sac and a sample of amniotic fluid is obtained and tested. If the level of AFP is found to be higher than average, this could be an indication of spina bifida.
When a woman permanently stops having menstrual periods, she has reached the stage of life called menopause. Often called the change of life, this stage signals the end of a woman 's ability to have children. Many health care providers actually use the term menopause to refer to the period of time when a woman 's hormone levels begin to change. Menopause is said to be complete when menstrual periods have ceased for one continuous year.
Genetic ultrasounds check with blood tests checking the fetus for some physical abnormalities related to the condition. On the other hand, diagnostic tests are 99% accurate in discovering down syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities. When performing the diagnostic test inside the uterus, there are chances of miscarriages and other problems. Diagnostic tests include chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis, and percutaneous umbilical blood sampling. Chorionic villus sampling includes collecting a small sample of the placenta, either through the cervix or through the abdomen, usually performed between 10 to 12 weeks of pregnancy.
In some cases, prenatal screenings may be compulsory. While used in certain cancer trials, prenatal screening is one of the most common forms. By using minimally invasive fetal genetic sampling techniques such as chorionic villus sampling, the possibility of variety of conditions may be ascertained according to Binns and Hsu. Screened conditions range from incurable, life threatening diseases to developmental impairments. With this information, a mother may opt to abort the child.
Fetal Scalp Blood Sampling- According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists11, measurements of the pH in capillary scalp blood may help to identify the fetus in distress. Procedure of fetal scalp blood sampling-25 After rupture of membranes, an illuminated endoscope is inserted through the dilated cervix and pressed firmly against the fetal scalp. The skin is wiped clean with a cotton swab and coated with a silicone gel to cause the blood to accumulate as discrete globules. An incision is then made through the skin to a depth of 2 mm with a special blade on a long handle.
This system is vital to ensure the survival of a species through the production of reproductive cells. Mammals reproduce sexually, with the female being fertilized by the male. The female reproductive system consists of to main parts, the uterus and the ovaries. (Figure 12)
Well where exactly do hormones come from? How about metabolism? Or reproduction? Well these functions of our bodies, as well as numerous other functions, are produced by a system called the Endocrine System. On the outside of the body the endocrine system appears as a collection of glands that makes up the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovaries (if you belong to the female kind), and the testicles (if you are male). Now this appears to be a complex system but it can be broken into bits to be understood easily.