Subordinate men only exist because they are measured in relation to hegemonic masculinity. Even so, as a group, subordinate men can still access power and privilege by aspiring to hegemonic masculine traits (Messner, 1997). Emphasised femininity implies that individuals are orientated to accommodate the desires and interests of men (Kilduff & Mehra, 1996). Women who possess hegemonic masculine characteristics, such as successful, competitive and physically superior women, are often seen as threats to men, unfeminine and ‘bad’ (Vescio, Schlenker & Lenes, 2010). However, the more women possess opposite traits of hegemonic
2.3.2. Second wave feminism Second-wave feminism (late 1960s - 1990s in the USA, but ongoing in various parts of the world) is concerned about the self-consciousness of women, their sexuality and reproductive rights in conjunction with seeking social equality for women (Rampton, 2014; Baxandall & Gordo, 2005: 415). Second wave feminists are concerned about the sexualisation of women in the media both on the cultural and political levels (Hollows and Mosely in Hatton and Trautner, 2013: 65). In the history of America the woman’s movement during the 1960s and the 1970s was the largest social movement of all women’s movement in the world (Baxandall & Gordo, 2005: 415). America women’s movement developed in two separate streams, which are founded
She discusses the history in terms of the first, second, and third waves of feminism. When talking about feminisms first wave, it is about women fighting for the right to vote. It follows the fight for suffrage through the story of Lucy Burns who formed the National Women’s Party. The first wave talked about ignores contributions by women of color or less privileged women. The second wave was probably the most well known for feminist history.
Judith Butler (b.1956) is a post-structuralist American philosopher and gender theorist who has influenced a wide range of disciplines including feminism, queer studies, cultural studies, psychoanalysis, literary, film and performance studies and many more. However, I am interested in the concept of “Gender Performativity” as I consider that Butler’s concept will assist me in my analysis of Little Women and also in my exploration of my hypothesis of gender as a social construct. I will also attempt to understand Butler’s idea of ‘Performative Acts’ through my reading of her essay “Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory” (1990). Being influenced by Lacanian psychoanalysis, phenomenology, structural anthropologist and speech-act theories, Butler argues that through our daily practices of speech and movement, we perform the conventions of reality.
Begin in the early 1990s, the final wave of feminist movement seek for challenges that turned back upon the second-wave to question whether the second-wave movements are unilaterally favorable to the women. While the previous two waves focused on political and social priorities, the third-wave movement stressed on the rejection of any kind of standardized distinction. In this phase, the women broke the boundaries by destabilized the notions of feminism. “Reality is conceived not so much in terms of fixed structures and power relations, but in terms of performance within contingencies” (The Three Waves of Feminism). In this phase, the feminist put the defining and female beauty as subject with urging women to take diverse role in social and political aspect.
Another interesting thing I found in this article is the different stages of feminism the author describes; I counted three in total. The author first talks about feminism as it was during the Spice Girls age; all about “Girl Power”. She then goes on to talk about embedded feminism: “the way in which women’s achievements, or their desire for achievement, are simply part of today’s cultural landscape. And lastly mentions what she calls
It is a social and philosophical concept which considers men (who are the patriarchs) as superior to women. Walby Sylvia (1990) in “Theorizing Patriarchy” calls it “a system of social structures and practices in which men dominate, oppress and exploit women”. Patriarchy is based on a system of power relations which are hierarchical and unequal where men control women’s production, reproduction and sexuality. It imposes masculine and feminine stereotypes in society which reinforce the unequal power relations between men and women. Where the term ‘masculine’ or ‘masculinities’ are not the same as ‘men’.
(2016, p. 323). She goes on to express how their writings are in part negative towards these actions as less than political. These actions against old moral standings was very much political, and a big part of the feminist movement of that