The article, “Cultural Relativist and Feminist Critiques of International Human Rights – Friends or Foes?” by Oonagh Reitman seeks to address how cultural relativist and feminist sees the existence of the international human rights, specifically women’s human rights. The research problem being addressed is the similarities between these two critiques of international human rights and how these two critiques have come to defy one another when it comes to the term of women’s international human rights. The author has made it clear that this is a debatable issue. The cultural relativist argued on the universality of human rights, which contradicts with the statement that human rights are those held simply by virtue of being human and whose substance, form and interpretation are not subject to variations in culture (Donnelly 1989: 109-110). Cultural relativist uphold that culture is the principle source of any rights or rules, they argued that the existence of women’s human rights cannot be universally applied.
. Women are currently at a disadvantaged with respect to rights, compared with men such as respect and such conditions According to dictionary.com Feminism can be defined as a doctrine or movement that advocates equal rights for women. Feminism is both an intellectual commitment and a political movement that seeks justice for women and targets the end of sexism in all forms. However, there are many different kinds of feminism such as radical feminism, socialist feminism, cultural feminism, and liberal feminism. In today society Feminists ought to disagree about what sexism consists in, and what exactly to be done about it.
As long as feminism considers women a well-defined category that's universally identifiable... it undermines its ability to represent women. Then reader approaches the theory of Sex versus Gender Feminism often splits the unity of women when it splits the idea of sex and gender. This distinction was first used to undermine the idea of "biology-as-destiny." But, if this distinction is pushed too far, then the idea of gender becomes disconnected from the body - and one never will understand the process of how sex and gender are socially assigned. Maybe sex is a gendered
One reason is that measurement lacks validity as self-reporting is the main method used. Societal roles may deter individuals from responding truthfully or even participating in the research. While the feminist movement has championed in pushing the agenda for equality for women not only in the United States but in societies across the globe, feminist theorists seek to challenge the masculine and feminine gender roles that are formed by societies and conform to role that are not gender biased.
Modern feminism is prevalent in movements such as “Me Too” and “Say Her Name” to diminish sexism and oppression felt on all fields. Modern feminism has been made to destroy the history of racism, homophobia and cisgender embedded principles of historical feminism. One of the most influential and intersectional feminist works are that of Audrey Lorde. In Audrey Lorde’s book, Sister Outsider she explains the sexism felt by black lesbian women and the intersectional oppressions and the lack of social acceptance. Lorde explains the homophobia she faces in the black community, the racism she feels in the LGBT community and the intense homophobia and racism embedded in
These cultures often accept and allow the brutalization of women through rape and other forms of sexual or domestic violence. Because of these attitudes, laws that are meant to protect women (if there are any) are not enforced adequately and crimes against women are not regarded with appropriate seriousness. In societies that enforce the subordination of women, rape and sexual violence is used as a means of control and even punishment for women who "misbehave." A lack of education domestically and globally results in the erasure of these gendered issues. Because of this, the oppression occurring in "third world" countries are not regarded with the appropriate urgency and remain unsolved.
The main issues addressed by the activists of “new” feminism are violence against women, human trafficking, body image, self-mutilation and the so-called “pornofication” (vulgar sexualization) of the media (Krolokke 2006). The third wave criticizes earlier feminist waves for their attempts to provide universal solutions for complex issues and standardized definitions of womanhood, thus failing to include some groups, especially teenage, non-heterosexual and transgender women or marginalizing others (women of different ethnic backgrounds, women of color). It also reappropriates the artifacts of femininity, such as lipsticks, body hugging clothing and high heels, earlier rejected by the radical second-wave feminists as symbols of male oppression. This new position was expressed in the statement of one of the prominent third-wave activists, Pinkfloor: “It’s possible to have a push-up bra and a brain at the same time.”
Just as there are many feminist views of rights towards women, a few critics have surfaced. Theirs has not been an acceptance story since as Heyward (66) says it is dangerous to dare to criticize any aspect of feminism. A critic of the feminist agenda will always be viewed as an enemy of the fight for equal treatment of both women and men. Ruether (15) explored the struggle for equal rights for women with a special interest in women like Teresa Okure in Nigeria and Teresa Hinga in Kenya. These two women have coined for themselves important titles in the battle to register the philosophy of inclusion of women in everyday life.
Sherman sought to force the public to question the seductive and often oppressive influence of mass-media over our individual and collective identities. Sexual desire and domination, the fashioning of self-identity as mass deception, these are among the unsettling subjects lying behind Sherman's extensive series of self-portraiture in various guises. Despite not aligning herself directly with feminism Sherman does conclude her work is, in fact, feminist. The work is what it is and hopefully, it's seen as feminist work or feminist-advised work, but I'm not going to go around espousing theoretical bullshit about feminist stuff. The portrayal of women is a central theme throughout Sherman's career and can still be seen in her more recent works.
Moreover, women with a foreign background should not have more difficulties when searching for jobs nor should women with other skin color than white feel invisible the mainstream media. One of the main arguments against intersectionality within feminism, is that intersectionality will cause feminism to be more about who to feel the sorriest for instead of improving feminism. I totally disagree with that argument on the ground that I believe intersectionality is rather about the fact that all of us experience events differently therefor it is crucial to listen to everyone’s experiences nevertheless to not place each other´s experiences into a hierarchy of who to emphasize the most. In conclusion, feminism should become more intersectional because it is necessary that within feminism bring forward discrimination that all women living in society experience. The time has come to cease making invisible the minority women.