However, in postmodern fictions there is other attempting to define the concept of gender identity in light of the psychological perception. Carter’s postmodern feminist assumption emphasizes the role of the psychological aspects in forming individual’s gender identity. For example, in School of Sympathy (1948) Nancy Roberts defines identity as, “who we think we are who we tell our-selves we are or ought to be” (p. 19). She suggests that gender identity is a sense that we try to form. Nevertheless, she, in clarifying this definition, also highlights the impact of some norms, which can affect this feeling: “To some extent this identity is usually based on race, class, ethnicity gender and sexual orientation” (p. 19).
The common economic characteristics of peasant household agricultural production is about the ways by which the peasant families make use of the resources at their disposal, for production, for family survival and for improving the quality of their lives. The farm is the basic unit of peasant ownership, production, consumption and social life. According to Alexander Chayanov , the household, labor, and consumption are three main pillars of the peasant economy with household at its center. Besides them, there are the market impact, the availability of means of production and the size of land and its fertility. The family composition is vital issue because the amount of labor product is mainly determined by the size and the composition of it.
The theory of the social construction of gender is based on two principles. The first one understands gender as a construction through socialization, division of labor, which is formed by a system of gender roles, the family, and the media. The second one says that gender is constructed by the individuals themselves at the level of consciousness, the adoption of the given society norms and adjusting to them. It could be shown through the appearance, demeanor,
Hegemonic masculinity prevails over other subordinate, complicit and marginalized masculinities. It is the most powerful form of being masculine among the four. First, the concept of hegemonic masculinity is about a specific trait model of men to be “so men”. That is to say, it is a set of codes and standards for being an ideal perfect man. It tells how the society portrays the significance of a desirable masculine image.
Dalit women’s access to citizenship rights, normally considered as accruing to every Indian citizen, has thus been examined more closely in regard to both their economic and social conditions as well as the various ways in which they are subjugated in public and private spheres. Wandana Sonalkar’s (2004) in her another work “Towards a feminism of caste: Gender and Caste”. She explore the Gender and Caste, in a sense, addresses this problem to some extent by bringing together a collection of historical and contemporary analyses, reports, manifestos and testimonies that bear on the theme and tries to align academic inquiry with contemporary political developments. This anthology is an important addition to Kali for Women’s series Issues in Contemporary Feminism, particularly because it seeks to exorcise the ghost of ‘monolithic identity’ which the Indian feminist
Through history, a number of literary and social theories have emerged to address certain issues and tackle some viewpoints about literary criticism. Feminism and Historicism are two of these ideological movements. Feminism represents a set of political, social, and literary ideas that aims to set women to an equal status with men. However, Historicism tackles the literary works from a historical point of view. In other words, historicists examine texts according to the historical background of its period.
Hence, Herein lays the close connection between feminism and postmodernism. Thus, Postmodernism indicates the wide horizon opening up for exploration from feminist perspective. A perusal of this is bound to open up new vistas of appreciation and understanding. In Addition to, women writers assert that a Feminist theory should be explicitly historical, attuned to the cultural specificity of different societies and periods and to different groups within societies and periods. They wish to analyse the workings of patriarchy in all its manifestations, desire to think in terms of pluralities and diversities rather than unities and universals and articulate ways of thinking about gender without simply reversing the old hierarchies or confirming them.
Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements, theories and philosophies which are concerned with the issue of gender difference; it also advocates equality for women and campaigns for women’s rights and interests. Feminist theory is associated with the analysis and explanation of women’s subordinate social situation. It seeks to analyze the condition which shapes women’s lives and to explore cultural perception of what it means to be a woman. In the early twentieth century there were some important feminist thinkers: Virginia Woolf (1882-1941), Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935), Simone de Beauvoir (1908-86) and Betty Friedan (1921-2006). Like them Rokeya also appeared as a strong voice of feminism.
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON GENDER AND ITS’ CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE ACCORDING TO ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDIES INTRODUCTION This bibliography aims to investigate the cultural significance of gender in anthropological terms, the definition of gender itself and the notion that gender plays a pivotal role in societal roles and norms. Rosman, Abraham, Paula G. Rubel, and Maxine Weisgrau. 2009. “Gender and Age” In The tapestry of culture: An introduction to cultural anthropology,141-160. Rowman Altamira.
In their research Garner & De la O Campos (2014) identify family farms as the following: “Family Farming is a means of organizing agricultural, forestry, fisheries, pastoral and aquaculture production which is managed and operated by a family and predominantly reliant on family labour, both women’s and men’s. The family and the farm are linked, coevolve and combine economic, environmental, reproductive, social and cultural functions”. Furthermore Garner & De la O Campos (2014) identify the characteristics of family farming as the following: even though the term family farm does not necessary imply a size range, yet it is often synonymously used for small-scale farms – where small-scale is defined by farm sizes of 2 or less hectares of cropland. The concept of family farm comprises differences not only in farm size, but also for instance share of family labor, amount of production, social context or degree of market integration. As pointed out in the citation above, it is important to notice that agricultural production is not the only and not necessarily the most important objective of family farmers, since they also pursue environmental, social, cultural and ecological goals.