Female sexuality and its representation has been the primary concern of this research while applying each of the approaches to proves that du Maurier’s work builds on Jane Eyre but the portrayal it grants to feminine sexuality and identity renders her work a narrative of modernity on its own. Several critics have analyzed the intertexuality between the two novels. However, this study builds what has been said before to dwell on the not yet exhausted topic of feminine sexuality. Nungesser is one of the critics who have presented a comparison between the novels to conclude that both works bring an air of freshness and novelty to the traditional female Gothic plot, the novel of development and the fairy-tale narratives. Nonetheless, Nungesser overlooks to precise subject of female sexuality which happens to be submerged in Jane Eyre’s concern with presenting a financial independent heroine whom in spite of what she suffered prefers to spend the rest of her days as a mere angel of the house.
Arlene Stein’s book “Sex and Sensibility” is a literary masterpiece that develops the framework of content that was essential towards explaining the rise of the lesbian movement; though solid in its message, Stein’s bias is recognized throughout the text, she was cognizant of issues and factors that affected the movement but she fails to piece together the entire spectrum. Stein captures three fundamental factors displayed throughout the text: (1). The recognition of new sexual identities and their associated orientations (2). The separation of the Feminist and Lesbianist movements, and (3). The differentiation of the “Old Gay” and “New Gay”lesbian identities.
Yet, Radcliffe’s precocity to feminise the genre is not limited to her treatment and coverage of women’s sufferings and fears. Susan Becker further explained that her “earl[iest] twists in the feminisation of the Gothic, namely [is] in the reduction of the villain, otherwise subject of the action, to a mere function in the female subject’s transcendence of ‘her proper sphere’: the home” (“Postmodern Feminine Horror” 79-80). Striving to liberate them, Radcliffe’s narratives took the shape of suspenseful mysterious narrative of Romantic journey in which the ‘travelling’ heroine-centered narrative “who moves, who acts, who copes with vicissitude,” escaped, even temporarily, from the patriarchal confining house (qtd. in Hanson 37). Radcliffe writings opened floodgates for her female successors to write within that tradition.
The gothic has a close affinity to the literature of the fantastic which is about the not-yet or what is to be achieved in the future. It is defined as a ‘fantastic escapist genre’ as it enables female writers “escape from powerlessness, from meaninglessness, from lack of identity except through the performance of unstable and unsatisfying roles, and from the covert perception of the hollowness of the promises of social mythology about women’s lives,” to use the words of Kay J. Mussell (qtd. in Vokey 5). Yet, the gothic’s engagement with the fantastic raises the question about its potential to criticize the ideological practices of the dominant discourse. Glennis Byron and David Punter define the gothic genre as “an escapist form, in which
Regina’s efforts have failed as Alexandra matures and realizes that she must escape the Hubbards and her mother (Hellman Act 3). In conclusion, criticism can be applied to literary works through many schools of thought. Given, Lillian Hellman's personality her feminine ideals are expressed through her works. Her ideas were and are integral part of history for not only women, but society as a whole. In order to express her ideas more clearly and add to the plot Hellman uses literary devices such as
It proves its genuine precocity to allow the reader to know about the heroine’s ordeals, feelings of frustration as well as about her victimization within the oppressive patriarchal society. It displays women’s struggles to conceal the politics of gender roles of their epoch and to protest against the Law of the Father. In her discussion of Gothic tropes, Anne Williams reveals that Female Gothic falls under the rubric of a marginalised genre while identifying the critical reception of the gothic in the pre-romantic era with the categorization of women as peripherized subjects, admitting that this literary form has been “congenial” to them and pleasantly suited to their lower social position (Fleenor The Female Gothic 8). In one sense, this may have been a reaction to exclusion from the male-dominated ‘higher arts’ of poetic and philosophical discourse: the natural desire to express oneself finding a new and perhaps more congenial form from only gradually found critical respectability (The Gothic Tradition
The novel is Atwood’s imaginative response cast as comic social satire in vividly metaphorical language. The story line of the novel, The Edible Woman is simple but by using paradox Atwood has made it complex. It is a story of a woman’s identity crisis of 1960’s. The novel re- visions the traditional comedy in order to underscore and satirically expose women’s continuing conditions of entrapment within their own bodies and within social myths. In Conversations Atwood speaks The body as a concept has always been a concern of mine.
Known for her confessional mode of writing, Kamla Das’s (1934-2009) poetry offers an aesthetic of resistance to the phallocentric codes and conventions. What sets her poetry apart from the other Indian women poets writing in English is the brutal honesty with which she handles the issue of women’s search for subjectivity and autonomy in the face of patriarchal prohibitions. Her choice of a free poetic mode instead of regular metrical form suits her tone of anger and protest resulting from the marginalization of women. However, while hitting out at the deeply entrenched patriarchal prejudices, she does not forget her own femininity. Das’s individuality lies in evolving a new language of protest.
Some are religious and others are full of sexual instinct. The women in the Singh’s fictional world are silhouetted against their vast, panoramic background, the great human catastrophe of the partition as depicted from men’s point of view. It merely indicates and suggests the unpleasant and ghastly experience of women involved in this historical and dehumanized process but does not portray or depict their fate, their misery and their suffering. Khushwant Singh’s flair of creative writing comes forward from newspaper writing to fiction. His basic excellence, which administers his creative talent and exemplifies the progress of his art, lies in his art of creating real people from the common parlance of society.
DISINTEGRATION OF THE ‘SELF’ IN BHARATI MUKHERJEE’S WIFE Dr.P. TAMILARASAN JAYAPRAGASH JAssistant Professor of English Assistant Professor of English SRM University SRM University Abstract Bharati Mukherjee (1940-2017) is one of the most acclaimed writers of the Indian Diaspora whose novels are impregnated with issues of identity and the yearning for an understanding of the self in an alien land. She is well known for the portrayal of the myriad, complex personal and cultural negotiations that emigrants, especially women have to go through in their arduous journey of life in an alien land. Torn between two conflicting cultures of the homeland and the migrated land, the deformation and the transformation of the identity of women and the predicament of women who