Feminist film theory Feminist scholars point out that there is misogyny in the mainstream media that treat women as inferior and objects. They expressed that there is a need to explore representations and images of women. Feminist film theory makes gender its exploratory focus and it has emerged to find a place for women in films; they were frustrated with how feminist studies ignore critiques and works of media, particularly films. Conventionally, the representations of media are counter to the ideas of feminism. The study of women’s representation in the media is not new When feminist film theory emerged in the 1970s and early 1980s and parallels with the development of film theory.
Lesbian Feminism: feminism based on the rejection of institutionalized heterosexism, particularly the primacy of the nuclear family, and the lack of legal recognition afforded to lesbians. Liberal Feminism: Individualistic emphasis on equality. To a liberal feminist, evidence of progress is seen largely by the numbers of women in powerful positions previously occupied by men. Marxist/Socialist Feminism: Draws parallels between women and “Workers” and emphasizes collective change rather than individual change under capitalist economy. Material Feminism:movement in the Late-19th-century to liberate women by improving their material conditions and removing domestic responsibilities.
In the introduction and the first chapter of Introducing Feminist Theology, Anne Clifford explains multiple concepts regarding feminism, society and Christian theology. Throughout the chapter, Clifford discusses the coming about of feminism and how feminism lead to feminist liberation theology. Firstly, Clifford asserts that a patriarchal world is a white man’s world, oppressing women and people of color. Therefore, feminism came (in three waves) to liberate women from sexism and oppression. According to the author, patriarchy, with its dominance, creates a barrier between interdependence and equality.
Feminism actually emerged as a reaction against the unjust treatment and subjugation of women; it aims at the emancipation of women from all forms of oppression. It sought for the equality of women and change of the existing gender relations prevalent in patriarchal societies. In fact,
Johnston clearly stipulates that feminist cinema is an alternative language against Hollywood movies in terms of production and content, and also it produces a different narrative and ideology against classical Hollywood dominant cinema (Johnston, 1979). Campion’s An Angel At My Table (1990) is an example of the female counter cinema aesthetic which also embodies the concept of essentialism. Jane Campion was one of four female film directors to be nominated for the academy awards best director statue; this is substantial evidence in accrediting her 1990 film An Angel at My Table in highlighting the female subjectivity in film. Campion used the influential biography written by Janet Frame to portray the underlying realities in which women living with mental disorders must succumb too, due to the over bearing hegemony society that the world of Hollywood enforce upon its audience. Before arguing on how the film takes a feminist counter cinema approach to addressing questions of female subjectivity and spectatorship in light of Gillet’s quote.
Furiosa subverts gender norms to an extreme and portrays a utopian image of women – visually she is the antithesis of Immortan Joe’s wives who have been made to obey the enforced standards for women in the film. They juxtapose each other starkly when they are in the same shot, as seen in figure 1, with the light and dark colours. The whiteness of the wives’ clothes that flow in the wind show a projected sense of purity which they are meant to abide by, whereas, Furiosa is harsh and dark which shows her rebellion. The lack of hair is significant since, traditionally, long hair is prized on females, however, Furiosa adopts a conventionally masculine haircut. This is important as she is transcending gender boundaries and not restricting herself to the patriarchy’s expectations – she is both masculine and feminine.
Feminist point of view means the analysis of any literary works based on the feminist perception. Feminism has gradually become broad and noticeable in its attacks on male-dominated society. The Shakespearian era of the 16th century was a time when women were very inferior in the society. If we compare with other writers, Shakespeare was always careful of women and tried to give them respect in his different writings. If we look at his famous play named Othello we need to judge the equality of women in terms of political, social and economic perspective.
Women’s participation in the public sphere during the 12th century was confined to suffrage. The rationale of the legal fraternity was sufficient reason for Courts, as adumbrated in this study, to refuse to admit women to the bar. The other factor that could be added to the barring of women was that they were also not able to hold office during this period under common law. It was proposed by the legal profession that the inability for women to hold office was that their mental and physical nature rendered them unfit for legal practice. It was further contended by a stereotypical thought that women did not possess a “legal mind.” Womenwere thought to be emotional rather than rational and logical.
T he last few decades of feminism has harmed women more than helped them. Do you really believe that modern-day feminism is the same as the “feminism” movement that was created back in the 19th century? I think not. Traditional feminism is immensely different from modern-day feminism. According to Oxford Dictionary, it is "the advocacy of women's rights on the ground of the equality of the sexes."
In order to understand this representation of women, one must first know the history and general themes prevalent in the Bollywood film industry, as well as the role of women in traditional Indian culture, and how both the traditional and unconventional Indian women are portrayed in films. Talking specifically about movies that centred on women, most early Indian films in the pre-independence era explored traditional culture, folk culture and mythology. These would employ foreign actresses because Indian women were hesitant to expose themselves to the camera. Though women were ubiquitous in popular cinema, they were inevitably denied depth or dimension. This could be attributed to the fact that the audience was pre dominantly male and so were the filmmakers and technicians.