4.3 Theory of difference The difference theory assumes that well prevails a fundamental difference between the sexes being husband and wife. The focus of difference theory therefore is not the abolition of these differences, but rather whose recognition (Heintz, B., 1993, p 21). Wesely (2000) is highlighting that the basis of the difference theory assumes that gender is not only occupied biologically, but also a strong social category belongs (Wesely, 2000, p.21). The nature and the behavior of men and women is influenced by their sex and therefore decides on certain lifestyles and life opportunities. Furthermore, one can speak of a structural difference, which affects the social life different to each gender.
Cultural feminist theory is traceable to Carol Gilligan’s research on various groups of males and females. In her book, A Different Voice , Gilligan sets out to correct psychology’s misperceptions and refocus its view of female personality and states that male and females have a differing set of moral code. For males, moral problems are often dealt with an “ethic of justice” whilst for females, moral problems are often dealt with an “ethic of care”. For Gilligan, an “ethic of care” is based on the feminine mode of caring, maintenance of relationships and more so the fact that women are more likely to put the concerns of others before their own needs whilst an “ethic of justice” is based on the masculine mode of remaining impartial and unemotional by focusing on justice, rules and
Based on this idea, women social position got out of the domestic limits. Women began to do different enterprises which were only limited to men. However, the male-mainstream, in social criteria, are still limited to the physical features which characterize men (Wright 49). The purpose of these introductory statements is to expose the difference between men and women in terms of physical characteristics. To explain, the relationship between males and females is sometimes determined by the males’ ability to subjugate females only by using their physical control (Bruehl 176).
In order to achieve the result language factors and gender differences examined in this paper. As mentioned above three important factors influence speech interruption. It is concluded that there is a direct relationship between direct comments and the rate of speech interruption. Previous researches show that 59 percent of direct comments relate to women that show the precision and sensitivity of women in confronting with men. The major part of subject deviation belongs to men.
Gender Roles can be defined as roles society expects people to play on account of their sex life. Like all roles, gender roles are made up of sets of expectations, so they can be thought of as sets of expiations, so they can be thought of as sets of expectation that are attached to sex. (pp: 220 John E. Farley & Michael W. Flota). Gender roles are separate patterns of personality traits, mannerisms, interests, attitudes, and behaviors that are regarded as either male or female by one 's culture. Gender roles are also exist with respect to interpersonal behavior (it still common for men to ask women for dates than vice versa).
FCDA scholars see gender as socially and individually constructed and it interacts with other aspects of identity – such as ethnicity, age, class, sexual identity – and with power relations, thus gender is not discursively enacted in the same way for women and men everywhere (Lazar 2005:10; Sunderland and Litosseliti 2002:15 as cited in Lehtonen, 2007). Butler’s theory of performativity which states that gender is not natural instead constructed socially is provides the ground for understanding the social function of language in constructing gender. Thus the focus on empirical studies, and the ways in which gender is actually constructed in authentic texts and situations (Lazar 2005:12-13; Sunderland and Litosseliti 2002:27, as cited in Lehtonen, 2007)) forms the major area of gender and discourse. Understanding Feminism in the Indian context Feminisim is the realization of the subordinate position of women and the relating social injustice and inequalities faced by women in the socio cultural political and economic contexts. Feminisim demands towards towards eliminating the inequalites and social injustices towards a gender equal society.
She found that Gikuyu language is sexist where they represent or name the world from a masculine’s point of view. She was able to prove sexism in semantic collocation where words meaning may shift from being positive male to negative female. Sexist language was also evident in sex-paired words, personification and imagery, in the morphology of the language, syntax or the word order, and in the use of titles and non-parallel terms. Studies on linguistic sexism did not only focus on the language but also how language is used in different texts like newspaper articles, textbooks and literary material. Demberg (2014), Animasahun (2015) and Laine & Watson (2014) focused their study on linguistic sexism in newspapers while Mehmood, et al (2014) on sample literary text and Perez-Sabater (2014) on
It is undoubted that men differentia women in speech, therefore, studies about language and gender that related to dominance in the use of language in English in mixed conversation are a controversial issue in sociolinguistics. “Dominance theory” and “different theory” are two methods that provide more explanations to the differential use of language of male and female. “Dominance theory” discusses about power and social status of male and female to get communication goals in which male dominate than female in mixed conversation. The dominance in language refers to the use of powerful/ powerless language that related to unequal social positions. According to Uchida (1992), “different theory” refers to male and female in the same group will
This argument is in line with what Cameron argues. Cameron (1998b, pp. 280–1) also states that Men and women are members of cultures in which a large amount of discourse about gender is constantly circulating. They do not only learn, and then mechanically reproduce, ways of speaking ‘appropriate’ to their own sex; they learn a much broader set of gendered meanings that attach in rather complex ways to different ways of speaking, and they produce their own behavior in the light of these meanings. It therefore can be simply said that according to Cameron, men and women have their own ways in communicating with others together with their belief of what men and women are supposed to do.
According to Islamic principles, both men and women have absolutely the same human rights, but if we attentively look after their roles in real life, one can easily observe that there is discrimination. As it is said before, my research questions were: Is there gender inequality between men and women? To what extent people's belief about gender inequality is right and who benefits more out of it: men or women? In order to answer the given questions an internet survey and an interview were conducted, where survey mostly was directed to answer to the first question, while second question were discussed in an unstructured interview. 1.1.