Isolation of Ecdysterone from Sesuvium portulacastrum As detailed in Figure1, Ecdysterone was isolated from Sesuvium portulacastrum using a sequential extraction process with Chloroform (CHCl3) followed by Methanol (MeOH), after which Alumina column chromatography of MeOH extract was performed. The different fractions were then eluted using varying proportions of CHCl3 and MeOH, resulting in MeOH: CHCl3 (20:80) bioactive fraction. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of MeOH: CHCl3 (20:80) fraction was carried out using a solvent system containing MeOH (15%) and Ethyl Acetate (85%). The TLC plates were visualized by spraying with vanillin- HCl reagent resulting in a UV sensitive band, which on heating, developed green color. The UV sensitive bands were purified using repetitive preparative TLC followed by crystallization.
Because it is a tertiary benzylic halide, the reaction is considered an SN1 type. To test the purity, the class then uses a TLC. When one places,” a spot of the substance on the absorbent surface of the TLC plate, the solvent (or solvents) run up through the absorbent,” (Zubrick223). The initial mass of the reactant, triphenylmethyl chloride was 2.006 grams. The experiment yield is 1.589g, which is a 80.3% yield.
The purpose of this experiment is to perform a Friedel-Crafts reaction of ferrocene. Friedel-Crafts reactions are examples of electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions in which the electrophile is a carbocation or an acylium ion. These reactions form a carbon-carbon bond and allows for either an alkyl or acyl group to be substituted onto an aromatic ring. Figure 1 shows the general mechanism for the Friedel-Crafts acylation of benzene. First, the alkyl halide reacts with a strong Lewis Acid catalyst, usually aluminum chloride, to form a complex, which will then lose the halide to the Lewis acid to give the electrophilic acylium ion.
This identified the product as luminol. 7. Discussion and Conclusion Carboxyl groups, which are made of a carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group, produce carboxylic acids when bonded to hydrogens, alkyls, or aryls. Replacing the hydroxyl group with a different heteroatom substituent will produce a carboxylic derivative, which include amides, anhydrides, esters, and nitriles. The polarity of the acyl carbon atom is produced by the substituent and the electronegativity of the C-O double bond.
Abstract In this experiment, the reaction kinetics of the hydrolysis of t-butyl chloride, (CH3)3CCl, was studied. The experiment was to determine the rate constant of the reaction, as well as the effects of solvent composition on the rate of reaction. A 50/50 V/V isopropanol/water solvent mixture was prepared and 1cm3 of (CH3)3CCl was added. At specific instances, aliquots of the reaction mixture were withdrawn and quenched with acetone. In addition, phenolphthalein was added as an indicator.
TLC, NMR, and IR spectroscopy were used throughout the process to identify ferrocene and acetylferrocene in addition to evaluating the levels of purity. Evidence: The objective of our experiments was to prepare acetylferrocene from ferrocene. The overall reaction was carried out using 6.1 equivalents of liquid acetic anhydride to 1.8 equivalents of phosphoric acid and concluded with an aqueous workup with NaOH. The initial reaction mixture containing ferrocene, acetic anhydride, and phosphate acid was mixed on a hot stir plate. During this period, reflux was observed, and the mixture appeared dark brown in color.
An infrared spectrum was run on the product to be compared to the starting material. The starting material had peaks at 2900 cm-1, and 1700 cm-1, corresponding to the Csp3-H of alkanes, and the C=O of a carbonyl ketone. The product’s IR spectrum had a peak at 3400 cm-1 and 2900 cm-1, indicating the prescence of an alcohol and Csp3-H of alkanes. The Jones test was performed using cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone as controls, and testing the starting material, 2-methylcyclohexanone, and the product. The product yielded a positive result, indicating the presence of an alcohol functional group.
One of the reactions you observed resulted in this product: NaCl + H2O + CO2 (g)? What well did this reaction occur in? Describe how the observations for this reaction support your answer. B BoldI ItalicsU Underline Bulleted list Numbered list Superscript Subscript70 Words A reaction I observed in number 1.) Sodium Bicarbonate mixed with Hydrochloric acid.
Other disaccharides are broken down by other carbohydrase enzymes. Carbohydrates (starch)are broken down in the oral cavity by saliva amylose. They are made up of 3 elements, carbon (C), hydrogen(H) and oxygen(O) and can be found together in three different forms. Either as a monosaccharide, disaccharide or a polysaccharide they are differentiated by the number of rings in their chemical compound. There chemical formation is C6,H12,O6 and due to their bond angles between the carbons, tend to form a pentose of hexoses, stable ring structure.
3.2.4 The catalyst concentration on epoxidation of cyclooctene using the investigated VO-complexes The effect of the catalyst was discovered by insertion of different molar ratios of the complex catalysts (L1VO, L2VO, L3VO and L4VO) to cyclooctene in the oxidation process (0.02, 0.05 and 0.10 : 1, respectively) using aqueous H2O2 in acetonitrile at 90 °C for 2 h (the optimized reaction conditions). In another words, the effect of the amounts of the catalysts related to the amount of the substrate (cyclooctene) on the epoxidation processes with 0.02 : 1, 0.05 : 1 and 0.10 : 1 (cyclooctene : catalyst). The results are reported in Table 9. The catalytic potentials of L1VO, L2VO, L3VO and L4VO at catalytic amount of 0.02 mmol has been studied and reported in Tables 4-7. The increase of the catalyst molar ratio to 0.05 and 0.10 mmol caused improvement in the rate of 1,2-cyclooctene oxidation with higher conversion compared to the catalytic amount 0.02 mmol of the VO-complexes.
Since xylene has a high boiling point of 140 °C, the reaction proceeded speedily. Crystallization of the product took place as the mixture underwent cooling. Filtration was used to isolate the product. The tests with regards to the melting point and spectra led to the determination that 9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-α,β-succinic anhydride was produced. The Diels Alder reaction is a high yield reaction and can be used to form as many as 4 carbons.
The objective of this experiment was to use an aldol condensation reaction to synthesize 3-nitrochalcone from 3- nitrobenzaldehyde. This was accomplished with a Diels-Alder reaction that utilized 3-nitrobenzaldehyde, acetophenone, ethanol, and sodium hydroxide. The mechanism for the synthesis of 3-nitrochalcone is presented in Figures 1 and 2. The alpha carbon on the acetophenone is deprotonated. This is followed by the attack of the alpha carbon anion on the carbonyl carbon on the 3-nitrobenzaldehyde.