A thick, triangular bone which is known as patella lies anterior surface between the femur and tibia. In each knee joint, there is two pieces of C-shaped cartilage which lies between the surfaces of the femur and tibia. The lateral side of the meniscus is known ad lateral meniscus while the medial side is known as medial meniscus. The major role of the menisci is to absorb the impact load between the femur and tibia and also to provide some degree of stabilization to
So by suprahyoid muscle contraction comes to rise of hyoid bone, larynx and pharynx if the jaw is fixed, and if the muscle is fixed by infrahyoid comes to lowering of hyoid bone and retreat back the lower jaw, which allows you to open your mouth. The optimum position of the cranio-cervical structures is a prerequisite for performing various vital functions such as breathing or swallowing. Dysfunction of any structure in cranio-cervical region can lead to disorders, which can manifest itself in other structures of the cranio-cervical region. To what extent will a disorder manifested depends on a lot on the individual ability of individuals to adapt to the disturbance occurred
This ligament is strong, flexible and supple or compressible, and keeps the bones from moving against each other at the joint. The telephones of this ligament, called chondrocytes, are thought to be the longest living cells of the body. Including the bones and ligament is strong, strong case lined with synovium, a slight layer that oils up the joint reach with
4b). Sequential concentric lamellae have alternate fiber orientations with each other, spiralling around the central canal . These fundamental units are aligned on the direction in which force is applied to bone, and the concentric layers give bone tissue an extra resistance to breaking, as a crack cannot be easily spread from lamellae to lamellae. Figure 4: a) Hierarchical structure of bone ranging from the macroscale skeleton to nanoscale collage and HA. Nair, A.K., et al., Molecular mechanics of mineralized collagen fibrils in bone.
While, treated with HE reduced trabecular bone lesions, especially in the secondary spongy areas and reduced the number of bone resorption pouches and OC. H-HE can also recover the Tb.N, Tb.Th and Tb.Sp just as positive group. CONCLUSION This study has demonstrated that H-HE can effectively increase BMD of the femurs, increased Tb.N and Tb.Th, but reduced Tb.Sp, all of which contribute to the treatment of
Typical Adult Anatomy: Bones A fully functioning hip joint is a vital portion of anatomy, from birth to advanced adulthood. The hip is responsible for the stabilization of a person’s body weight whether the person is static or dynamic. The physical joint is classified as a ball-and-socket joint, the head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvis. With how the head is oriented in the socket, the joint is able to withstand tremendous amounts of pressure and allows it to be a strong and stable portion of the human anatomy. The design of the hip is actually very flexible and allows for a wide range of movements in different axis.
Tendons are strong, tough bands of inelastic fibrous connective tissue that connects a muscle to a bone. They are sometimes referred to as sinews which are also tough bands of tissues capable of withstanding great amounts of tension and when talking about tensile strength, they’re the strongest among the other connective tissues. Tendons are consists of elongated collagenous cells and minimal ground substances. These tendons are closely packed together, parallel to the direction of the force (Brandt, 2004). But among these tendons in the body, only one muscles stood out not only as the largest, but also considered as the strongest; the Achilles’ tendon.
as categorical or numerical variables). Although other features such as the presence of sacral fracture are important in diagnosing knee injury, radiographs may not provide sufficient detail. This information is instead more likely to be obtained using a separate CT image analysis component. It is vital to remember that the methods developed for these tasks must be fully automated if they are to be of use in a computerized anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) for knee injury. Furthermore, since different structures will be analyzed for different visual characteristics, segmentation must be performed before any other analysis can take place.
# 6 Kirkland Signature Calcium Calcium is one of the most common alkaline-earth metal elements found in nature. It is very important both for man and plant life. Calcium is a building block of bones and teeth, which transmits nerve signals. To all these processes to function properly, it is necessary that your level of calcium in the blood is always good and regular. If you don’t take enough calcium trough food, you need Kirkland Signature Calcium.
Using CT, the 3D shape of the residual limb can be reconstructed from a number of two dimensional\thinspace(2D) slices that are taken transversely to the limb's long axis. The major advantage is that the CT data can be incorporated into a computer aided design\thinspace(CAD) prosthetic design system and the 3D volumetric images obtained can be used to develop a finite element model for the residual limb. These finite element models can then used to study for interface analysis of bone and soft tissue. However, CT is expensive and also dangerous for repeated measurements as it uses a lot of of ionizing
Case # 2 1: A complete communicated fracture is a fracture that not has been broken in two but the bones have shattered into pieces. 2: Osteoporosis is decreased bone volume, some of the characteristics would include thinning of the outside layer of the compact bone by the epiphyses and the diaphysis. Over time the bone volume in an adult decreases however, it would be more prominent in someone that has osteoporosis. 3: The reason the doctor recommended that Margaret do weight bearing exercising is to help stimulate new bone growth and help with bone remodeling. 4: Osteoporosis is more common in older adults (women), and she is over the age of 65.
An articulation is the weakest point on the skeleton however the structure is capable of resisting strong forces that may threaten its normal alignment . A normal structure of a joint includes a coated layer of tough, slippery tissue that coats the ends of each bone known as an articular cartilage. A cartilage acts as a shock absorber and keeps the end of the bones from being crushed. For instance the knee, also known as the biggest and most complex joint in our body has an extra cartilage known as a semi-circular cartilages, these cartilages or menisci helps with the prevention of the femur to rock side to side on the tibia as well as acting as a shock absorber . Including the knee osteoarthritis can affect all the joints in our body, the most commonly affected joints are found in the neck and back, the hips, hands as well as the metacarpals.
The second category describes the atypical type of EFD (EFD-A) as the bone lacks the normal modeling of the di-metaphyseal and an unusual appearance of the trabecular bone. This form of EFD is commonly seen in dysosteosclerosis and osteopetrosis. Lastly, the third category of EFD describes the the deformity as having a marrow expansion (EFD-ME) where the bone marrow becomes packed with blood cells (hyperplasia) or infiltrated with foreign or abnormal tissue which is commonly seen in Gaucher’s disease. The most common way to diagnosis Erlenmeyer’s flask deformity is by use of radiography an imaging technique that uses electromagnetic radiation, such as X-rays, to look at an internal structure of an object with varying density (ie., the human body).
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is one of the rarest and most disabling disease known to mankind. The disease progression is caused when connective tissue such as; muscle, tendons, or ligaments are slowly replaced by bone. Eventually, the additional bone formation outside the skeleton will constrict movement and imprison the body. The literature on fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is sparse, which could account for the extremely high rate of misdiagnoses of the disorder. An important implication of diagnosing the disorder are understanding the key characteristics at birth as well as recognizing the body swellings are not classified as tumors.
The objective of the virtual lab on bones consisted of identifying the major bones of the human body. We had to place the major bones of the body in the correct anatomical position. The key terms included the axial skeleton which includes the skull and the bones that support it, such as, the vertebral column, ribs, and sternum. The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the limbs and the structures that support them such as, the scapula and pelvic bones. It is also noted that where two bones meet is called a joint.