Fertility Transition Theory

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Fertility transition theory with respect to gender equity is challenged by two statements: The measures taken by men and women to prevent births has resulted to a fertility decline and essential changes will occur to women’s lives as a result of a persistent decline of fertility. The latter statement can be further supported by the fact that women belonging to countries with high fertility suggest spending a huge amount of time on childbearing and child caring. Thus, it can indicate that the country’s focus on parenthood has deviated from other aspects when fertility decline continues (Mcdonald, 2000) which could be the case in Japan.
Several studies to justify the fertility decline in many countries have tried different methods and tested
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For example, Duvander and Andersson (2008) stated on their study that the usage of parental leave to represent gender equity is not an accurate depiction of gender equality. Such that, it can be interpreted as a positive influence in the right direction of gender equality by the father’s support in the division of household labour which is a close depiction of gender equity. Moreover, most studies are focused on either women or men solely; the comparison of men and women is often neglected and the absence of a macro-level standpoint does not allow them to understand the change at a societal level particular among various countries (Leerife, 2012). Likewise, the models used were trivialized for its lack of focus on the study of fertility within the confines of its social and cultural framework (Mcdonald, 2000). So, another approach suggested is to include different society-level measures of both women and men in different areas while the focus will solely be on Japan instead of several countries. In any case, measuring gender equity in relation to fertility will differ for every researcher depending on the researcher’s evaluation and the relevancy of the indicators
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