Postpartum Mood Disorders Giving birth to a baby brings one of the biggest psychological and physiological changes a woman may encounter in her lifetime. Pregnancy and childbearing bring with them joy, hope and excitement and are marked by celebration. However, the birth of a child can at times be overshadowed by overwhelming emotional struggles. Due to the enormity of the changes associated with child bearing, it is highly likely that a woman may experience some form of related stress. These emotional or mood struggles are a common occurrence after childbirth and are a major postpartum challenge (Stocky & Lynch, 2000).
There are changes in the T-wave and in the ST segment of the fetal ECG due to a worsening fetal hypoxia. Hence these parameters can be assessed to diagnose a hypoxaemic fetus. A mature fetus exposed to hypoxemia develops an elevated ST segment with a progressive rise in T-wave height that is expressed as T:QRS ratio. An increasing T:QRS ratio indicates fetal cardiac ability to adapt to hypoxia. When hypoxia worsens, it results in an increasingly negative ST-segment deflection such that it appears as a biphasic waveform25.
Many mother-related factors can harm the fetus: poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, the use of some prescription or over-the-counter drugs, the use of recreational drugs such as cocaine, sedatives and drugs, X-rays and other types of radiation. Mothers who drink too much during pregnancy may have babies with fetal alcohol syndrome. Infants with this syndrome may experience problems such as small head size, heart defects, irritability, hyperactivity, mental retardation, or slowing of motor development. Newborn babies begin to recognize the world with all sense organs from the moment they are born. Newborn babies can hear, see, taste and smell and feel the
A congenital anomaly is defined as an abnormality of structure, function or body metabolism that is present at birth and results in physical or mental disability, or is fatal. Differed group of congenital anomalies discovered at different time of pregnancy but most of them are early discovered if the mother is monitoring her pregnancy very early. The choice to terminate the congenital anomalies is another issue because it raises a heated debate regarding a malformed fetus still exists or not and whether it is considered as human being has the right to live or it is merciful for him to end its life. A review of 20 studies found overall termination rates following antenatal diagnosis of congenital malformation, are as follows: Down’s syndrome (92%), Spina bifida (64%), Anencephaly (84%), Turner syndrome (72%), and Klinefelter syndrome (58%). (11) This topic need another paper to discuss about.
Some patients experience disorientation and inattentiveness. The disease can also lead to stupor, coma and death if not treated appropriately & promptly. Other rare but lethal maternal complications include acute renal failure, pneumomediastinum, rhabdomyolysis, coagulopathy, sialorrhoea – constant salivation (“ice-cream bucket syndrome”) and central pontine myelinolysis19-24. It may also cause Mallory-Weiss tears and esophageal rupture 121,122. Hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with increased risk of low fetal birth weight25 .
Some types of pain are relieved just after childbirth, while some last months and even infrequently years. One of the most considered dysfunctions during pregnancy and sometimes spreads or emerges during postnatal stages is the pain of pubic symphysis. This is why relieving the pain of pubic symphysis and the maternity support belt may be closely related. What is pubic symphysis? Pubic Symphysis is a joint that connects the left and right pubic bones.
Sexual abuse on the other hand is defined as any non-consensual sexual contact. Financial abuse refers to misappropriation of the senior citizen’s money or property without his or her consent. Finally, neglect is the abandoning or any circumstance when the designated caregiver fails to meet the necessary needs of the older
THE COOPERATION AND CONFLICT THEORY This theory is hypothesized on the basis to generate the prediction on how FMC may increase maternal health and in cases that will decrease maternal health. The interaction between the mother and fetes is considered to be a cooperative one. Whereas parental interaction is characterized as both cooperative (genes are shared and increases fitness )and conflict (all genes are not shared and future pregnancy will be impacted by too much of maternal cells in offspring).In the light of conflict the fetal manipulation takes place by increasing the resource transfer from maternal circulation through the placenta and it has also caused the emergence of maternal countermeasure in order to limit the transfer so as to avoid impact on either sides. (6) MATERNO FOEATAL MICROCHIMERISM AND DISEASES Increased FMC will lead to certain pregnancy related disorders because of the dysfunctioning of placenta and foeto maternal hemorrhage (5)These cells are capable of surviving in the bone marrow and they are able to proliferate, differentiate and activate. Hyper activation of these cells have been found to be associated with autoimmune diseases (4).The FMC have the ability to attack the maternal tissues and leads to
Introduction Pregnancy and giving birth to a child are two of the most significant, fantastic, and pleasant events in most women’s lives. However, for some women, they are stressful and may be associated with severe fear of childbirth. Receiving support from partner and family and counseling support may decrease unusual fear of childbirth. If untreated, fear of childbirth remain and increase with approaching labor onset . According to conducted studies, 20% of women experience severe anxiety and fear of childbirth which in 6 to 10% of them interferes with their daily lives .
According to UNFPA (The United Nations Population Fund) “A women’s chance of dying or becoming disabled during pregnancy and child birth is closely connected to her social and economic status, the norms and values for her culture and the geographic remoteness of her home”. It has also been found that poor and marginalized women are at the higher risk of maternal death as compared to aristocrate women. Hypertension, diabetes, respiratory problems, obesity and infections are some common health problems that occur during pregnancy or at the time of delivery. Maintaining Oral health /oral hygiene is also essential during pregnancy .Its proper care give benefit to both mother and foetus as well. However, there is a common misconception that it is not safe to obtain dental services while pregnancy that is a myth.