Introduction Romanesque architecture started around 1000 to 1200 AD around the middle ages, extending from the decline of the Roman Empire until the begging of gothic architecture. It is one of the most influenced styles of architecture but also one of the most hard to characterize. Unlike other styles it developed independently in diverse locations such as Italy, Spain, England and France. Its characteristics come from the ancient roman architecture that developed into bigger prettier and more complex constructions. However, there are different views in where it spread first as well as where it got more influence from.
The societies of Tokugawa Japan (c.1603-1867C.E.) and medieval Europe (c.1000-1500C.E.) had two things in common; a feudal system. A feudal system is something that features hierarchies or social structures. The feudal system normally starts with a religion, which is at the very top of the social pyramid, then it’s the King or monarch for Europe and the shogun for Japan, then there are the nobles for Europe and the daimyos for Japan.
Feudalism was the political governing system during the Middle Ages. It evolved in a time where people needed protection from invasions. This system was meant for the kings and important people to have control over the serfs and the peasants. The most important relationship in the feudal society is between the lord, the vassals, and the peasants. The lord was a monarch who controlled all land and people.
The fall of the Roman Empire was undoubtedly a significant event in itself, but what were the long-term consequences for the European system? Kate Eugenie Mary Pickering 000066991 Dr Luke Cooper Evolution of International Systems Word Count: The Roman Empire, from 27 BC until 476 AD, entailed over four hundred years of rule from its imperial centre at Rome. The Roman Empire was larger than any that had existed before or has done since (Heather, 2006), however, large areas of Europe were still outside of the empire. In 476 AD, Augustus was deposed by Germanic King Odoacer (Fields and Hook, 2006), bringing the Roman Empire to an end. Following the fall of Rome, the Byzantine Empire in the east rose from its imperial centre at Constantinople and western Europe fell into a period of instability known as the ‘Dark Ages’.
The political system of England during the Middle Ages was well organized in structure, such as the feudal system, law and order, and the roles in each of the three courts. First, the government in England during the Middle Ages was generally based around the feudal system, which kept the country in secure and in order. It was the basis by which the upper class kept control over the lower class. The very top of the feudal system was the king who was the top leader in the land. The king could not control the entire land all alone, so he divided it up by granting lands or “fiefs” to his most important nobles: his barons, and his bishops.
The Ancient Egypt occupied the present country of Egypt. A comparison of political leadership and cultural achievements of the Holy Roman Empire and the Ancient Egypt is discussed below. Political Leadership and Society The Egyptian civilization and the Holy Roman Empire had different political systems. The Holy Roman Empire was a feudal monarchy ruled by an emperor. The first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was Frankish King Charlemagne, who was crowned by Pope Leo III in the year (800 Whaley, 35).
After a long period of its existence, the huge Roman Empire eventually reached its end as “the North African bishop Saint Augustine (354-430) wrote the City of God in response – all empires fall, Rome is no different.”(Class 7 slide) The fall of such a huge empire then raises an important question that what were the main reasons for collapsing of the Roman Empire. Many historians argued that barbarians led to the decline and eventually fall of the Roman Empire. The Romans used the term “barbarians” for all foreigners especially, for the tribes who attacked and intruded their borders. But in fact the word “barbarian” did not have a negative meaning for all people in the Roman Empire. Around A.D. 440, as the Christian priest Salvian indicated, “Almost all barbarians, at least those who are from the same kin and race, love each other, while the Romans persecute each other.” It is certain that barbarians played an important role in terms of declining and falling of the great Roman Empire, but the question which has been argued by various historians throughout the history is that to what extent they were responsible for such a significant historical event.
Delanty (2013) agrees, also putting emphasize on feudalism as a unifying factor in Europe and saying that the Franks can be seen as the creators of Europe in the making, an ‘embryonic Europe’. Joseph Calmette (1941, cited in Barraclough, 1963) synthesizes with Tierney & Painter’s (1992) visions, saying that ‘it was necessary for the Carolingian Empire to collapse for Europe to come into being’ (p.13). Dawson (1946) is the most convinced, saying that there is a direct line going from the Carolingian civilization to contemporary Europe. Barraclough (1963) sees the unity of the Frankish Kingdom as nothing more as a brief moment in history without any influence on times to come. He argues that a century later, Europe’s structure will have been
Introduction Many theorists believe that the modern international state system emerged after the Peace of Westphalia, which brought an end to the ‘thirty-year war’ across Europe, from the period1618-1648. Regarded as one of the longest and greatest armed contests of the modern era by Ronald G. Asch, Europe was torn apart by the greed of princes for religious and territorial dominance. Approximately 20% of the population in German was slaughtered and killed. The Thirty-Year War was fought between Catholics and Protestant states in the Holy Roman Empire, over the main principle that a local ruler could determine which religion could be practiced. "This contest was a German civil war, but foreign powers played a crucial role" (www.oxfordbibliographies.com).
The Poor Laws was the beginning of England as a welfare state, with helping the poor imbedded in the law. Elizabeth also opened houses of correction, whose goal was to re-integrate criminals and homeless into society. Some of the measured passed during this time even lasted until the nineteenth century. England was in a religions turmoil long before the Elizabethan Age began. Henry VIII broke away from the Pope in 1533 to marry Anne Boleyn and declared himself Supreme Head of the Church of England.