The middle classes protested against the dominance of the old church because it was largely controlled by the upper classes and administered largely for their benefit. They looked down upon the artisans, merchants, lawyers, doctors etc. who constituted the middle class and were not willing to associate with them. The rise of nation-states and new monarchy who were keen to establish their absolute rule also greatly contributed to the Reformation.
In the 1st century, Christianity spread throughout Rome causing differing views on the religion. At first Christianity was disapproved of by the upper class, then in later years it was embraced. The spread of Christianity throughout Rome eventually caused Rome to split and lead to the fall of the Roman empire. Christianity challenged the government, believing in a higher power then the Emperor. With this mindset, the government feared for it’s future in Rome and it was disapproved of, much like the Tang Emperor Wu in document 6, who stated that it will cause disorder in society.
‘What worried the states men in the mother country was the likelihood that, if Virginians had occupied Kentucky, Indians would attack them, and the British might have to come and rescue at great cost to the imperial treasury” (5) The 1758 Treaty of Easton, which gave the Indians all the land west of the Appalachian, did not help their cause. Holton alludes to many other instances where the colonists wanted to expand but was consistently overlooked by the imperial government. The Indians caused the British to fear another war. Essentially, Holton makes it seem like the British were more on the side of the Indians then they were for their own colonists.
Roman citizens had come to consideration that they, indeed, did have a poor government. The Roman government gave an unjust life to people based on their social rank (Document E). This led to the citizens not appreciating the government as well as the Empire. Most of the emperors in Rome were assassinated so it gives the citizens the intention that if you did not like the emperor you can just kill them (Document A).This tells the reader that it was hard to govern Rome because they constantly kept replacing emperors. Considering that Rome did not have a stable ruling system, citizens of Rome began to doubt and not depend on their government.
He described several discrepancies regarding monarchies including negative effects of hereditary succession, calling the practice of passing crowns through family bloodlines "evil" (Paine, 62) and unfair to the common man. Paine feared that such a rule of American colonies would not be good for the colonial society. The English Bill of Rights was outlined to limit the powers of the reigning monarch in order to expand more power to the English Parliament and ensure equality for English citizens. Fed up with the misdeeds of James II and previous rulers, the document was a breaking point for Parliament and English citizens who did not have basic civil rights due to the absolutism of English monarchies. The document called for a more structured political authority through Parliament and not through a monarch who could make laws and impose taxes at their
Since there was debt because of the war, the economy was already very bad in Britain – therefore they taxed the colonies. When the colonies started boycotting British products and threatened to stop trading with them all together, it was successful because Britain’s economy wasn’t strong enough to handle those things. The merchants in Britain couldn’t afford to have trade with America end. If the British merchants were hurt, this would thus hurt The economy as a whole in Britain. In later decades, in the War of 1812, America would try to stop trade with Britain again using a method called embargo, which would not be effective because they did not have the debt that the War had caused.
Was the Reign of Terror justified? The Reign of Terror was one of the worst times in world history. This was a period of time when thousands of people were being executed for unfair reasons because of Robespierre- an absolute monarch who believed that torture and terror were required to have a strong constitutional law. The reign of terror was not justified because Enlightenment ideas were ignored, the rights of the common people were violated, and the methods of punishment were too harsh.
Poor military, mistrust in the government, and the overwhelming size lead to the fall of the Roman Empire. Poor military decisions contributed to the downfall of the Roman Empire. In C 450 CE, the Roman military leaders made a poor decision by letting the military decide on taking away armor (Document 3). This caused more soldiers to be killed in battle because they didn’t have the proper protection.
At one point, the British didn’t even let colonists -British citizens- have a fair right to trial because so many colonial rights were taken away! To pay for the French-Indian war, Britain made the colonists pay taxes on almost everything, without any form of colonist consent. When the colonists got mad and rebelled , Britain began to punish the colonists by taking away colonial rights , so Americans got tired of it and began protesting and eventually started a revolution. The American revolution was more about civil liberties than economic rights. Three arguments that support that the American revolution was about civil liberties are cancelation of self-government, taxation without representation, and the forcing of colonists to provide for British soldiers.
One of the problems Henry II faced was the barons. Under Stephen the baron had become too powerful and Henry had the issue of regaining this power. Many baron had taken advantage over Stephens lack of control and authority, several barons built castles without asking the kings permission and had taken over large areas of land Henry had to reassert his authority as the barons where becoming too powerful. If the barons carried on as they were Henrys fate would have ultimately reflected that of Stephens. Also the barons would have been seen as undreaming the king’s power and authority.
He collected taxes without the consent of the estates general in order establish many things, fund a series of wars, build a bigger and stronger military and to build his palace, the Palace of Versailles, when it was built he insisted that the nobles spend more time there (Doc 2). This eventually led the nobles into debt because they spent most of their time and money at the Palace of Versailles. The nobles being in debt meant that they lost status and power, which ultimately fed the basis for the French Revolution. Document 3 states; “The aftermath of the revocation was disastrous for France. Many of those who abjured [gave up] their Protestant religion repented of their weakness.
As expected, Britain put certain taxes on the colonies to help regulate trade and pay for transport of goods. However, many of the taxes Britain put on colonists were for the sole purpose of creating revenue for the British (Doc 2). The reason the British believed they were justified to do this was the belief that colonists still owed reparations for British support in the French Indian war (Doc 1). The colonists found these taxes so insulting that many of them refused to purchase British goods.
Having a weak central government created a whole new set of problems. After analyzing the Articles of Confederation the weaknesses outnumbered the strengths. Such as states not having to obey the laws and ignore taxations because they had no authority to enforce them. Congress did not have the power to collect taxes from the each of the states, that was one major weakness especially during the Revolutionary War because instead of getting the money they had to ask the states for money and the states said no. At that point the government should have put their foot down and enforced a new law, their troops were fighting for their freedom and these people didn’t care.
Many states did not want to sign the articles due to their fear of another monarchical government. Because of that, the articles was created with a weak central government. This somewhat pleased the states however it took three years and a half for the Articles of Confederation to be ratified. Fear of another tyranny, “ The Articles of Confederation did not include a president,” The cruel and oppressive government had led the colonies to revolt against the long live monarchy, which explained why the articles did not propose a president. This new form of government crushed the idea of a government governed by a king.