Fig Lab Report

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CHAPTER-I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Fig (Ficus Carica L.)
Fig, Ficus carica, is one of the ancient fruits known to mankind which also finds its mention in the Bible. It is reported to be under cultivation from 3000-2000 BC in the eastern Mediterranean region. The fig fruit is unique. Unlike most 'fruit' in which the structure is matured ovary tissue, the fig's edible structure is actually a stem tissue. The fig fruit is an inverted flower with both male and female flower parts enclosed in stem tissue, botanically known as a syconium. At maturity, the interior of the fig contains only the remains of the flower structure, including the small gritty structures commonly called 'seed', which are the unfertilized ovaries that had failed to
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The tree is deciduous; medium sized; and irregularly branched. The fruit is a syconium (multiple accessory fruit) type- a round, fleshy, hollow, and edible receptacle which bears numerous tiny unisexual flowers on its inner surface. An individual flower matures into a drupelet. The syconium has an opening at the distal end, the ostiole or orifice. Each of the many flowers borne inside the syconium has four-parted sepals, no petals, and simple, long-styled, pistillate flowers in the edible figs. The synconium of the Capri fig contains many small pistillate or female flowers but with short styles. In addition, the Capri fig produces a number of staminate flowers which are located around the ostiolum on the inner surface of the syconium. The staminate flowers have four anthers, each with two oval pollen sacs. Thus all edible figs produce only long styled pistillate or female…show more content…
1. Floral morphology in caprifigs and edible figs.
1.3 Fig Cultivars
Figs have been grouped into four types of cultivar depending on the sex of the flower and the method of pollination.
1. Capri Fig or Wild Fig - Capri figs are inedible because they harbor blastophaga insects. They produce short-styled pistillate flowers (gall flowers), adopted for oviposition by the blastophaga, the functional male flowers located at the ostiole end with abundant pollen. When the insect emerges through the ostiole of the syconium, after the oviposition in gall flowers, it carries several pollen grains from staminate flowers located near the ostiole. In the group (Capri fig), there are subgroups: Profichi, Mammoni, and Mamme. Profichi is the best pollinizer.
2. Smyrna Fig - Smyrna is the most important cultivated type. It produces only long-styled pistillate flowers. The syconium does not develop into mature fruits unless these flowers are pollinated by pollen carried by the blastophaga from Capri figs.
3. Common Fig or Edible Fig- common fig also bears only pistillate flowers; however, it needs no pollination. Fruits (syconia) mature pathenocarpically. Popular cultivars include - Poona, Conardia, Mission Kadota, and Brown

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