F igurative language is the language that expresses one thing in terms of another by analogy, extension, or other association. A critical approach to drama written in verse requires the knowledge of not only of metre but also the function and purpose of the various figures of speech. These should never be only decoration because they are one of the means by which the playwright can develop and express his meaning. The various figures of speech have often been made interchangeable, thus a satisfactory definition of them is difficult to provide. There is a tendency to include symbols, similes, and metaphors making up the imagery.
In this technique, understanding is suggested not through conscious evaluations – like those of a chorus aware of everything, a character specially endowed with authority, or the observers who interpret a central referent – but through devices of speech that implicitly reveal a level of awareness beyond the speaker’s own comprehension. By introducing changes of tone, images, allusions, ambiguous words, and variation in sound, or by making a speech from words, images, and symbols repeated or duplicated in other contexts, the dramatist “breaks the barrier of human limitations of his individualized characters.” Through these devices, the dramatist creates authoritative dramatic facts relevant to all the characters. None of these stylistic devices can function alone. They acquire their significance from the general context of the action, which, they in turn try help to elucidate through their own contributions. Each of these stylistic devices works with other devices, of language and structure, in provoking the spectators to view the action as a whole in a certain perspective.
The third characteristic within Thompson’s book is the ‘Structural approach’. The Symbolic form shows how cultural symbolic forms are constructed and how all elements are related to each other for in visual art forms we talk about the arrangement of the subject matter. Structure consists out of different languages such as the angle of the shot, what is included and excluded in the shot, composition, background and lighting. The structure of visual art forms such as photographs, art works such as paintings and how they look; what you see and how you interpret it (Thompson 1990: 141). According to Thompson he meant that symbolic forms are formations, which demonstrate an expressed structure and these structures consist out of rudiments that are in determinate associations with one another (Thompson 1990: 141).
Branches of visual rhetoric are visual metaphors, optimal innovations, irony and animation. Visual metaphor is the form of comparing and connecting two different objects thus the one taking the properties of the other (Jeong, 2008). Optimal innovation suggests a break-through and a unique way of depicting an object, event or scene (Wojtaszek , 2011). Irony expressed through an image has the traits of pleasure and persuasion in advertisements (Stern, 2012) and animation in advertisements does not focus only in children but also adults as a method of persuasion (Bush, Hair, & Bush, 1983). Therefore, in order to trigger persuasive effects a lot of methods are used; in this particular study there are three broad bodies that this research is based on.
A critical approach to drama written in verse requires the knowledge of not only of metre but also the function and purpose of the various figures of speech. These should never be only decoration because they are one of the means by which the playwright can develop and express his meaning. The various figures of speech have often been made interchangeable, thus a satisfactory definition of them is difficult to provide. There is a tendency to include symbols, similes, and metaphors making up the imagery. Metaphorical is used to mean figurative and symbolical or symbolizes is often applied to almost any of the figurative qualities of language.
metaphor is used to emphasize on the ridiculousness of how human beings are living and behaving in their everyday lives. B. Types: Several theorists such as Kövecses, Dickins, Picken, and Newmark analyzed the types of metaphors and tried to classify and rename them, but there are limitless ways to look at them. Here are two general kinds of metaphors: 1. First type of metaphors: Linguistic metaphors According to Schäffner (2003), linguistic metaphors are considered decorative language.
ABSTRACT Metaphor is a popular phenomenon in linguistics and attracts much attention from the scholars in various fields. From many modern points of view, especially according to cognitive linguistics, metaphor is referred to as a form of mentality which has a net of expression using metaphor people rely on when communicating. Based on these points and the conceptual metaphor theory, this paper focuses on analyzing the use of “life” terms in English and Vietnamese literature. Because “life” is one of the most favorable terms linguistics like to use in order to express their message, this research’s goal is to highlight common and different features between these two communities. Furthermore, this paper will prompt learners to enhance their
Metaphors can characterize everyday abstract concepts (i.e. time, states, change, causation and purpose). In this regard, Lakoff (1993:203) claims that “the study of literary metaphor is an extension of the study of everyday metaphor. Everyday metaphor is characterized by a huge system of thousands of cross-domain mappings and this system is made use of in novel metaphor.” The term metaphor is defined as a “device that involves conceptualizing one domain of experience in terms of another, a mapping of the structure of the source domain onto a target model. The mapping between these two different conceptual domain is carried out by means of metaphor.”Neagu(2005:157) Two types of metaphors are distinguished: conceptual and linguistic.
It is believed that conceptual metaphor is one of the “cognitive devices” that motivate the semantic structures of idioms, the general meanings of which are established by the “conventional knowledge”, and therefore the motivation seems rather cognitive than linguistic by nature (Kövecses, 2010). Besides that, Nguyen (2016) pointed out that one conceptual metaphor can be indicated by more than one idiomatic expression in language.