There are two types of appraisals, primary and secondary appraisals ( Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Primary appraisals are evaluations of the situation and whether it is perceived as a threat or challenge. For secondary appraisal, it evaluates coping resources ( Lazarus & Smith, 1988). However, it has been identified that there are 3 factors that affects the reaction to a stressor in primary appraisal: “Threat”, the appraisal of any harm or loss; “Challenge”, the appraisal for mastery and gain; “Loss”, the appraisal of deterioration of self-esteem or health ( Ferguson et al., 1999). For coping, it affects psychological outcomes in terms of coping strategies followed by a stressor ( Cohen & Lazarus , 1973).
Coping is a response aimed at diminishing the physical, emotional, and psychological burden that is linked to stressful life events and daily hassles (Synder & Dinoff, 1999, p. 5). There are three types of coping styles which are emotion-focus coping, problem-focus coping, and avoidance. Emotion-focused coping is directed at regulating emotional responses to problems (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). There are two subtypes under emotion-focused coping which are cognitive and behavioral. Cognitive emotion-focused coping are the ways of thinking that attempt to draw attention away from the more painful elements of a situation by reinterpreting the situation, using positive thinking to block out negative emotions, or by the use of selective attention (Compton, 2005).
If we look at death, the risk of isolation, the supposed meaninglessness of life, and the responsibility of making life-altering decisions, may each be a foundation of existential anxiety. Comparing the hypotheses of existential therapy, the manner in which people develops internal conflicts and the decisions they make, will ultimately govern that individual’s present and future
It stresses the secondary benefit to be gained by improving performance in activity or occupation despite ongoing physical dysfunction. Supplementing external aids to promote problem-solving with residual capabilities is a crucial part of this frame of reference. Useful approaches within this frame of reference for the case of Sarah would be compensatory approach and adaptive skills approach. Compensatory approach is widely used to compensate for dysfunction in mobility, self-maintenance and domestic activities, and methods of compensation may include the supply of assistive equipment, modification of the environment and organization of social assistance. The adaptive skills approach aims at helping the person to adapt his/her existing skills to master problems and cope independently in various circumstances.
Person centered therapy is founded on two basic hypotheses: each person has the capacity to understand the circumstances that causes unhappiness and to reorganize his/her life accordingly. The therapist should be genuine, in touch with what he/she is experiencing and communicate these feelings to the client when they are appropriate to the encounter. The goal of person centered therapy is to help the client become more fully functioning person. On the other hand, the specific goals are client self directed and designed partly to eliminate clients’ unhealthy need to please others. The goals of person-centered therapy can be conceptualized as a two step process, first moving away from the self that one is not, and then moving toward one’s true
Crisis intervention theory into practice often filled with hidden uncalculated circumstances. Understanding a relationship to assist in solving a crisis. The perception of the information that the person has for the situation and the ability to be ready for whatever circumstances are going to present are the two critical determinants of success in this field (Everly & Mitchell,1999). Crisis interventionist main objective is to focus on the person in crisis other than the problem. The crisis is the way the person sees from their point of view, how they endure the crisis, interpret or how they emote during a situation.
.Treatments. In the cases of voyeurism, where significant potential for negative consequences poses a concern, the need for the long-term therapy and monitoring must be emphasized. According to DSM 5, the severity levels of stress, social and personality development impairment resulting from voyeurism conditions are also variable depending on each individual's temperamental and environmental conditions. Therefore, the treatment choices and options take into consideration the specific needs of the patient and the severity of the effects. For treatments to be successful, a voyeur must want to modify existing patterns of behavior.
The observation/reflection model projected by Kolb (1995) may but, retain one within an individualised cocoon, hence a needed shift from a ‘problem solving’ to a ‘problem setting’ scenario (Schon 1992) is needed. This will inversely portray one within an organisational frame of thinking, where the awareness that, there is a lack of fit between what is being delivered to what the patient essentially needs, is realised and established (Wilson – Barnett et al
It is a combination of will power and way power. The term woll power gives determination to reach goal. The term way power will make the alternate way to achieve goal by tackling the obstacles. It provides motivational concept of achieving goals in alternate way of proceedings. Practical approaches for developing hope include setting challenging “stretch” goals, contingency planning, and regoaling when necessary to avoid false hope.
Linehan is recommended as the validated and components in the treatment of BPD (Stuart, 2013; O'Connell & Dowling, 2014; Bateman, Gunderson & Mulder, 2015). DBT stresses the application of behavioral and cognitive techniques such as training in problem-solving and social skills, exercises in monitoring moods and psychological education. Many studies provide evidence to support the effectiveness DBT on BPD client especially with self-injured thinking and behavior. In this article, it is going to explore how the management of dialectical behavior therapy is beneficial to patient with borderline personality disorder, the limitations of DBT and finally suggest recommendations on the use of