Lakoff and Johnson also note that metaphors may differ from culture to culture but argue that they are not arbitrary, being derived initially from our physical, social and cultural experience, whereas metonymy is a function which includes using one signified to stand for another signified which is directly or closely associated with it. Moreover, metonyms are based on various indexical relationships between signifieds, notably the replacement of effect for cause. When compared with metaphors, metonyms may be visual as well as verbal. In film, which Jakobson regarded as a basically metonymic medium, 'metonymy can be applied to an object that is visibly present but which represents another object or subject to which it is related but which is absent ' (Hayward, 1996).The indexicality of metonyms also tends to propose that they are 'directly connected to ' reality in contrast to the mere iconicity or symbolism of metaphor. TV Chandran has predominately used metonyms to bestow a 'grounded experience ' to the viewers by visualizing the protagonists’ anguish, fear, worries, fantastical liberation, mental agony and stereotypical lives in experiencing alienation than metaphors as they usually involve direct associations (Lakoff & Johnson 1980).
According to Christian Metz, the analysis of cinema or films is related to art, which refers to the study of expressiveness, as effectively pointed that cinema is mainly a denotation process and represents to have specified language. The term language is only being presented metaphorically and without any association to ontological commitments to represents distinctive modes of cinema analysis as well as interpretations. This represents an extended tendency in terms of art to make usage of effective language elements to reflect the seriousness as well as rigor of a specific mode of in recognition or the extended status a certain form of art and genre. According to the known theorist of film Christian Metz, language terms are not specifically for the purpose of rhetorical embellishment (Larsson, 2014, p. 152). In consideration to the research analysis of Metz, it can be suggested that the main purpose behind linguistics of films is to quality specific film for the analysis of language semiotics, and the best way is to compare film to another language such as English that already qualified for such analysis approach.
Cinema in its essence is the reproduction of reality. According to Andrè Bazin, man has been using art in order to preserve himself from “spiritual death”. Film and photography are the only two examples of visual arts that allow us to achieve a further level of realism. Bazin claims that cinema and photography are the only two visual arts capable of satisfying our obsession for realism. (Bazin, A.1967).
1. Subjectivity It is the quality of being based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or opinions. It is creating the experience of what it is like to think out of a character’s mind. The camera trick you to think that something is there just to find out that it is not. It’s like seeing things that does not exist.
Los rubios, therefore, sublimates affect, casting it as a void, and chooses to focus instead on illustrating memory’s limits and its decidedly performative and fictional qualities. To that end, Los rubios juxtaposes metadiscourse about memory’s mechanics with the craft of filmmaking.
What does it mean to be human? Can consciousness be created or is it inherent? Does a machine have rights if it can think for itself? These are some of the questions that Ex Machina poses. The film then tries not to answer the questions, but give people a perspective on a situation.
In 1932, a new architectural style in the modern movement emerged to free the architectural form from any decorative element (Hitchcock and Johnson, 1966). It was influenced by the philosophy of Adolf Loos “Ornament and Crime”, where he describes ornaments and decorations as a crime since they are labour intensive (Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2004, para. 7), As well as “form follows function” by Frank Lloyd Wright (Runco, 1999, p. 82). Both philosophies advocated simplicity and functionality rather than creating decorations. Therefore, color has not been discussed enough although of its important role, since it was viewed as a choice for a decorative purpose.
Kunard (n.d.) points out that mostly critics were put off by the camera’s mechanical qualities; some believed that “art cannot be produced through a mechanical device” (p. 172). The debates on artistic merit of photography have continued to the present date. I can agree with C. Jabez Hughesthat a certain categorization is possible dividing photography into Mechanical, Art, and High-Art (Kunard, n.d., p. 161).I believe that much depends on the photographer and what he or she wants to convey, as well as their mastery of the device and an ability to do in picture what one keeps in mind. A truly artistic picture needs to possess an ability to stir emotions in the viewer and be skillfully made. Henry Fox Talbot made a passing remark about a broom leaned against a door frame implying that it could be equaled to art only due to its resemblance to Dutch masters who were known for
As its name suggests postmodernism refers to a reaction to, as well as a certain rejection of modernism which contained an ‘optimistic belief in the benefits of science and technology to human kind’ (Hayward, 2000). Although postmodernism can never be clearly defined there are specific characteristics and techniques used in films that are attributed to the postmodern style of film-making. The film Natural Born Killers (1994) directed by Oliver Stone contains explicit examples of postmodern textual devices and the opening scene will be used as a case study illustrating the effectiveness and functions of such stylistic practices. In terms of visual techniques and cinematography the scene contains an intended reflection of a media consuming society. The first thing we hear is the song ‘Waiting for the Miracle’ by Rock and Roll Hall of Fame singer Leonard Cohen.
In Carver’s story, the narrator embodies that representation of society and his journey to illumination. However, as a society we resist change, much like the narrator who represents his early discontent with Robert who is an embodiment of everything he isn’t. As expressed in his quote “And his being blind bothered me… A blind man in my house was not something I looked forward to” (Carver 265). Furthermore, Carver reflects on the false sources of knowledge and our feeble senses that we rely on to establish judgment. That idea of falsification is seen in the quote “My idea of blindness came from the movies.