This is highly exothermic reaction with the present of multi component catalyst such as molybdenum, bismuth and iron supported by silica. These catalysts can achieve high selectivity and weak activity that deactivate the process slowly. The drawback using these catalysts is the product is easily poisoned by sulfur compound in the reactant gas. Because of the highly exothermic reaction, it can achieve until 670 to 750 kJ/mol of heat reaction. The superficial velocity of reactant gas inserted into the reactor is very fast by the range of 0.4 to 0.7 m/s and it only taken few seconds of contact time from 5 to 20s in the reactor.
The major Hydrocarbon in olefin is ethylene and propylene. Olefins are not present in crude oil but are formed during crude oil processes. They are highly reactive and therefore undesirable in the finished product (Speight, 1999). 2.4.3 CYCLOALKANES (NAPHTHENES) These are hydrocarbons containing one or more ring structures. Naphthene hydrocarbons (cycloparaffins) are ringed molecules.
Coal makes big catastrophes to the atmosphere and health, and it is because it exudes lots of quantities of chemicals compounds to the air, water, and land such as mercury, uranium, thorium, arsenic and other heavy metals. A report issued by the World Health Organization, indicates that the coal particulates pollution is estimated to shorten approximately 1,000,000 lives annually worldwide (World Health Organization et al, 2011). The maritime logistic chain would be affected because in the near future countries will demand less coal and in the long run a complete shift of product. . Due to the greenhouse effects coal burning produces, big consumers of coal like China and India will be forced to decrease their coal consumption.
Conventionally, these materials can be produced in powder metallurgy route; however, its high processing cost is a disadvantage. This study will be focused on molybdenum carbide and its synthesis using the chemical process route. There are already many reported studies dealing with different chemical methods for the synthesis of molybdenum carbide, such as sono-chemical synthesis , carbothermal hydrogen reduction , and temperature-programmed reduction of oxide by gas . M. Patel et al.  reported a method that ensures intimate mixing of the reactants at a molecular level.
Ethylene and the catalyst promoter (HCl) are introduced into the reactor through sparges and effectively all ethylene is converted into ethylbenzene. Low ethylene and high benzene ratios are used in order to give desired yield of ethylbenzene. Most commercial plants operate at the ratio if 0.3-0.35 because as the ratio increased, more side reactions will occur such as transalkylation and isomeric rearrangement. Further alkylation of ethylbenzene will leads to formation of polyalkylbenzenes. The loss in net yield can be recovered by recycling the material to the alkylation
The most widely used for sweetener of natural gas are aqueous resolutions of alkanolamines. They are generally used for bulk elimination of CO2 and H2S. The low working cost and flexibility of tailoring solvent composition to suit gas arrangements make this process one of the most commonly designated. A liquid physical solvent can be additional to the amine to recover selectivity. The acid gas is fed into a scrubber to eliminate entrained water and liquid hydrocarbons.
The natural carbonation of silicate minerals is very slow, so the reactions must be accelerated considerably to be an economically viable large-scale CO2 storage technology. Two problems must be solved to make large-scale mineralization of CO2 more attractive (Herzog, 2002): • extracting or activating the reactive component MgO from silicate mineral, and • speeding-up the carbonation chemistry kinetics Mitigation potential of CO2 utilization Finally I will discuss the extent, time duration and scale of contribution of the CO2 storage process in the mitigation of the high CO2 emission problem. Three points that I have tried to cover under this heading will be based on the readings of the Table 1: • As is clear from the table total industrial CO2 use is around 115 Metric tones of CO2 per year. Production of urea is the largest consumer of CO2, accounting for over 60% of that total. From the table and the values that it is showing it is safe to assume that CO2 storage from the industrial emissions will have very little (if any) effect on the mitigation of the CO2 emissions.
It was observed (Table 4) that most of the samples of the alcoholysis mixture are only partially soluble in anhydrous methanol even after 2 h of reactions carried out using CaO and CaCO3. From Table 4, NaOH (0.4 wt%) is selected as a suitable catalyst. It can be explained by the relatively high amount of free fatty acid present in CCSO. Lin  reported that if an oil has a high acid value, the reaction can be severely retarded. The reaction required a long time or an additional amount of catalyst and both are undesirable for
Most oil sight reserves only last about 25 to 30 years, and then they have to move to a new location (“Non-Renewable”). Due to the constant search for energy, prices of nonrenewable energy is never constant unlike renewable. Subblefield outlines that “hydroelectricity is sustainable, since it is ultimately a product of the water cycle… long after fossil fuels are gone, the forces that make hydroelectricity possible will still be continuing on the Earth.” Renewable energy is also more efficient than coal. For example, “of all the energy released by burning coal… only about 40 percent is turned into electricity; the rest is wasted up the chimney as heat. A further 5 percent or so is lost in power lines; only about 35 percent reaches end uses and can be counted as final energy consumption” (“Alternative”).
Environmental destruction can occur in various ways; however, it is proven that releasing unreserved amount of carbon gases (CO2, CH4, NO2 and CFCs) into the environment is one of the most serious causes that led the destruction critically, for instance, these gasses instigate climate changes that affect many environmental disturbances (Chapin III et al., 2000). In addition, burning fossil fuel is the major human activity that releases carbon gasses through transportation and industry. However, it is not reasonable to argue that increasing the cost of fuel is the most efficient way to solve the immediate and imminent problems that the environment faces when there are other methods that would produce more efficient outcomes. Therefore, this