Paper Industry and Aluminum Industry – Both these industries require large amounts of Fuel and Energy. Coal being the economical energy resource forms an essential input to these industries. The price and readiness of Coal is an important factor in the growth of these industries 5. Chemicals and Pharma Industry – Several chemical products can be made from the byproducts of coal. Refined coal tar is used in the production of chemicals, such as creosote oil, naphthalene, phenol, and benzene.
TLC was used to identify the actual unknown product as well as other products/reactants present in the filtered solution. The procedure was conducted by placing a TLC plate in a developing chamber that is filled with a small amount of solvent. The solvent cannot be too polar because it will cause spotted compounds on the TLC plate to rise up too fast, while a very non-polar solvent will not allow the spots to move. The polarity of the spots also determines how far it moves on the plate; non-polar spots are higher than polar ones. After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds.
Oxo synthesis and aldol condensation are chemical synthesis route, both of which use petroleum as the raw materials, and thus need a large investment and have strict technical equipment requirements. The biological fermentation of butanol from renewable resources (biomass) is generally carried out by C. acetobutylicum under control anaerobic conditions, with butanol, acetone, and ethanol as the main products at a ratio of approximately 6:3:1, and this process is referred as ABE
Also, incomplete combustion (carbon monoxide and carbon are made instead of carbon dioxide) was a severe hindrance to the lab. The lack of lab resources and a changing environment were the main limitations to finding accurate values during the combustion
nZVI possesses a large removal capacity, fast kinetics and high reactivity for the degradation/removal of many environmental pollutants (Chen et al., 2012; Chen et al., 2013). It has also been confirmed in previous studies that nZVI has higher absorption and enhanced reactivity for Cr(VI) removal (Zhang et al., 2013) compared to other materials (Montesinos et al., 2014). However, bare nZVI are prone to rapid agglomeration leading to the formation of micro-sized aggregates which lead to loss in reactivity and reduced in the environmental mobility (Grieger et al., 2010). This is attributed to their rapid oxidation, magnetization and high reactivity (Zhang et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2015). One of the proposed method to overcome this drawback is to coat the nZVI particle surface with surfactants, upon rapid desorption of surfactants into the waste water the particle stability would markedly reduce.
1 PETROLEUM Petroleum is a mixture of gaseous, liquid and solid hydrocarbon that occurs naturally beneath the earth's surface (Awake, 2003). Petroleum is composed of hydrocarbons (hydrogen and carbon) and may exists as crude oil, natural gas or condensates. Crude oil is a naturally occurring, free flowing liquid mainly hydrocarbons with its specific gravity between 1.00 and 0.80. The major elements of crude oil are carbon (83-87%) and hydrogen (10-14%) and minor elements, nitrogen (s density is an important measure of its overall quality. Oil density is sometimes expressed in terms of its specific gravity but more often is given as API gravity.
The overall volume of the reaction decreases as the reaction progresses. By Le Chatelier’s principle, a high pressure and low temperature push the reaction in the forward direction. But reducing the temperature reduces the kinetics of the reaction, thus an optimum temperature is required. The reactions are carried out at around 3000C and 50-100 atm. (Olah & Goeppert, 2006) Control of temperature is very important and over-heating of the catalyst needs to be avoided as catalysts gets poisoned and degrades at high temperature.
The errors in the acidic and neutral compounds can be explained by impurities in the crude product, along with the presence of the solvents, ethyl acetate and water, which disturbed the stability of the compounds, and led to lower melting points over a larger range. The abnormally high melting point of the base may have been observed due to improper separation of the acid and base solutions in the separation funnel. Some of the acidic compound may have entered the basic solution and reacted with the base to form a high melting point salt, making the melting point of the base appear abnormally high. The Mel-Temp was also turned on a high setting accidentally, so it is possible that the temperature rose too quickly to get a good reading of the melting
Besides the inaccuracy in determining the freezing point and problems in the enthalpy of dissolution, the largest source of error was the temperature probe. Over the course of the multiple trials, the temperature probe would read somewhat inconsistent values. Due to this uncertainty, trials were performed on pure deionized water to see how far the probe read from zero degrees Celsius. Another source of error was in the calorimeter. Using two foam cups as a calorimeter is sufficient, although far from perfect.
The main way that oil and natural gas reserves are acquired are through the means of Fracking. Also known as hydrofracking, this method utilizes a drill that drills down thousands of feet underground, which is then flushed with millions of gallons of water along with additive chemicals at high pressures to break the rocks sheltering the reserves. This method of attainment is quite risky as it comes with many unfavorable consequences that are quite unbeneficial. Like fossil fuel plants, fracking also releases greenhouse gasses like methane(Potential Health and Environmental Effects of Hydrofracking in the Williston Basin, Montana), which is worse than carbon dioxide and causes air pollution. Alongside that, pollutants like Benzene and Xylene also leak out during the fracking process, which is known to cause serious health conditions and even death in some cases due to the long exposure to the pollutants(Potential Health and
The objective of this experiment was to use an aldol condensation reaction to synthesize 3-nitrochalcone from 3- nitrobenzaldehyde. This was accomplished with a Diels-Alder reaction that utilized 3-nitrobenzaldehyde, acetophenone, ethanol, and sodium hydroxide. The mechanism for the synthesis of 3-nitrochalcone is presented in Figures 1 and 2. The alpha carbon on the acetophenone is deprotonated. This is followed by the attack of the alpha carbon anion on the carbonyl carbon on the 3-nitrobenzaldehyde.
One reason is fracking increases the risk that groundwater can be polluted. This creates a problem due to the fact that the clean groundwater has more important uses than being polluted to extract shale gas. With methane emissions, environmentalists doubt that shale gas is a better alternative to harmful fossil fuels. Another argument presented by the environmentalists is that the fossil fuel industry is declining; investing in a company that will not succeed is pointless. They think that shale fracking is not going to be very successful because the industry is moving towards renewable energy
During production when the oil is exposed to high heat and multiple solutes, that causes the different types of fats to go bad. A study was done on random bottles of Canola Oil and scientists found that .52% to 4.2% of the fatty acids were toxic trans fat. If trans fat is artificial, is can lead to heart disease which is the leading killer in the world. “Like all modern vegetable oils, Canola Oil goes through the process of refining, bleaching and degumming — all of which involve high temperatures or chemicals of questionable safety. And because Canola Oil is high in Omega-3 fatty acids, which easily become rancid and foul-smelling when subjected to oxygen and high temperatures, it must be deodorized.