This new approach can reduce the environmental problems associated with waste fish disposal. The experimental fish meal agar used as laboratory media to promote bacterial growth. Due to this approach experimental fish meal agar will replace other different laboratory agar media efficiently & economically. Peptone is partially hydrolyzed protein. Fish meal is clean, cooked, dried tissue of undecomposed fish.
The table 1 explains some of the enzymes that have been used in aquafeed for their potential benefit to the aquaculture industry. Table 1- Enzymes for feed applications and their specific function Enzyme Function Amylase Utilization of starch and complex polysaccharides Arabinase, Pectinase Degradation of anti-nutritional factors Mannanase Degradation of mannans, a non-starch
Conclusion & Recommendation Tilapia had a RGL value of 6.666%, as a result of computing its digestive tract's length I therefore conclude that tilapia is an omnivore. It is said that they feed on both aquatic plants and planktons. Tilapias are omnivores, and as such have a low requirement for fishmeal and fish-oil in their diets, making them a net producers of protein and therefore a valuable aquaculture species. For us to be able to dissect successfully , get a bigger fish that is easier to detach the organs out. The size of the species really matters when it comes to identifying its parts.
The main exogenous factor affecting proximate composition is diet. Various studies have examined the effects of temperature, light, salinity, pH and oxygen concentration on the proximate composition of fish but these factors would seem to have very limited effects. On the other hand, endogenous factors are genetic and linked to the life stage, age, size, sex and anatomical position in the fish (Huss, 1995). These endogenous factors govern the majority of principles that determines the composition of fish (Huss, 1995). Proximate composition of body muscles of Puntius stigma (male and female) analyzed shows that the moisture content was found to be higher in female, while protein, fat, ash, carbohydrate and minerals contents were higher in male.
Briefly, 25 µl of ethanolic extract of propolis was added to 1 ml of reagent solution (0.6 M sulfuric acid, 28 mM sodium phosphate, and 4 mM ammonium molybdate). The mixture was capped and incubated in a thermal block at 95°C for 1h. The absorbance of the reaction mixture was measured at 700 nm against a blank. Ascorbic acid was used as the standard calibration. The results were expressed as milligrams of ascorbic acid equivalent per gram of sample.
was isolated from prawn body. Larvae were fed twice per day with probiotic mixed feed for treatment group. As compared to the control group, significant reduction of V. harveyi growth was observed at 8 hr and at 50 days in in-vitro and in-vivo challenge test, respectively. Treatment group showed better performance than the control one in terms of growth, digestibility and immunity. The weight gain at probiotic treated prawn at the end of the experiment was recorded as 549.30±40.02% (specific growth rate SGR 3.12±0.10), while it was 310.77±18.68% (SGR 2.35±0.08) in control group.
For example, using biomanipulation to improve water quality in nutrient-rich lakes. Biomanipiulation is the alteration of a food web to restore ecosystem health (Shapiro et al. 1975). The basic proposition is that secondary consumers (planktivorous fishes) are removed either through the addition of tertiary consumers (piscivorous fishes) or harvesting, which allows for the dominance of large-bodied, generalist grazers (e.g., Daphnia) to control phytoplankton. When the population of planktivorous fishes increases and there is no predation refuge (e.g., oxygenated hypolimnion) for large-bodied zooplankton, less efficient small-bodied zooplankton grazers (e.g., rotifers and herbivorous copepods) typically dominate zooplankton communities, thus allowing for the overgrowth of phytoplankton.
Abstract Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) is a by-product from palm kernel oil processing production and provides moderate nutrition with approximately 14-18% of crude protein (CP) and 13-15% crude fiber (CF). Usage of PKC is common in ruminant diets as protein source. However, it is limited in the monogastric animal diets because PKC contains mannan, non-starch polysaccharide (NSP). In feed industry, mannanase was mixed in animal feeds to digest NPS and improve nutrient utilization. This study investigated the parameter optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis to improve the quality of substrates from PKC with multi-response criteria based on the Taguchi orthogonal array.
Mean daily consumption of feed (g) by each tank per feeding frequency, feeding rate and feeding time are estimated by subtracting the weight of the uneaten feed from the total have weight of feed given. These values were then summed to determine the mean weekly feed consumption per feeding frequency, feeding rate and feeding time. Each feeding frequency, feeding rate and feeding time being experimentally tested in triplicate. 2. Evaluate feeding efficiency and growth performance of salmon fed different diets The growth parameters are caculated such as growth rate, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion efficiency (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER), and survival rate.
CHAPTER 1 1.1 Introduction Fishery industry is one of the important economic resources in Malaysia. It offers source of employment to the society, not only for fishermen but for workers in associated industries as well, such as marine-based food industry, boat building and net making businesses. It also plays an important role as one of the component of overall agricultural sector in providing the food security for the country. However, globally, the fishing industry is highly inefficient (Cao, 2009). Deployment of highly powerful fishing technologies, build-up of redundant fishing vessels capacity, pollutions and habitat loss has reduced the fish stocks worldwide.