The middle school model uses various modes of instruction that benefit various of learners. The middle school model uses student centered approaches to learning. Inquiry learning and interactive learning are also emphasized in the middle school model. Differentiation is used to meet the needs of all unique learners. Cooperative learning, discussions, student inquires, and projects are used to meet the needs of auditory, visual, kinesthetic learners.
Have clearly stated learning outcomes and share them with students and help them understand what your most important goals are. 2. Match your assessment to what you teach and vice versa. Explain how you define special practice, and help students develop their skills. 3.
In accordance with Piaget’s theory, the learner interacts with objects and events available in the physical and social environment and therefore comprehends the objects or events using the process of assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. The learners, therefore, construct their own conceptualizations and use them to generate solutions to problems. This theory also suggests that humans create and construct knowledge as they try to bring meaning to their experiences. In the differentiated classroom, teachers should facilitate the learning process by organizing learning activities and using variety of aid material according to the level of students’ cognitive structure to enable them to construct knowledge through their
Cooperative learning model is an active process where students work in small teams/groups, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Students have opportunities to actively participate in their learning, question and challenge each other, share and discuss their ideas, and adopt their learning. Ross and Smyth (1995) describe successful cooperative learning tasks as intellectually demanding, creative, open-ended, and involve higher order thinking tasks. In this model, it is essential to create a positive climate where interpersonal skills can be promoted so that positive emotions will be fostered among learners. Cooperative learning also helps the learners to feel empowered and respected to prepare them to face real
Critical thinking is relevant in a few different aspects of life. For example, critical thinking can be applied to school and learning. There are people who support using different aspects of critical thinking in students curriculum. Laura Hummell said, "Critical thinking skill development is crucial in elementary schools. Students who are allowed to explore, empathize, question, hypothesize, conceptualize, experiment, and evaluate throughout their own learning become productive community members" (Hummell 5).
Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick (2006) indicate that “formative assessment can promote the development of capacities and attitudes used in lifelong learning. Assessment-centred or student-centred learning environments also emphasize congruence between learning goals and what is assessed”. Formative assessment is going on all an ideal opportunity to give feedback on what understudies are figuring out how to distinguish accomplishment and areas for further work. Additionally, for the educator or teachers to evaluate effectiveness of instructing or teaching and provide a feed forward or to centre feasible arrangements. “Good feedback practice is not only about providing accessible and usable information that helps students improve their learning, but it is also about providing good information to teachers” (Nicol and Macfarlane, 2006, p. 214).
The basic concept of learning is based on this theory. The mental processes as they are being influenced by either intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors, which eventually results in learning acquisition of an individual. Knowledge systems of cognitive structures are actively constructed by learners based on pre-existing cognitive structures. The teacher facilitates learning by providing an environment that promotes discovery and assimilation/accommodation. The cognitive processes are: observing, categorizing, and forming generalizations about our environment.
Accordingly, in cooperative classrooms, the students are expected to help each other, to discuss and argue with sharing their ideas.it helps to assess each other’s current knowledge and fill in gaps in each other understands. According to Johnson and Johnson (1989) and Colburn (1991) described cooperative learning as one which promotes positive interdependence, face to face promotive interaction, individual accountability, social skills, group processing, shared leadership and responsibility for each
Feedback is a significant element in determination of education quality as well as in effective learning where it portrays the learning outcomes for students and the successes for the tutors. There are many aspects that concern educationists with regards to feedback but the relationship between perspectives of learning as well as teaching and feedback stands as the most important among them. Feedback should be conveyed in different modes in a learning environment but whatever mode chosen creates room for dialogue between the tutor and students. Therefore, it is only through feedback that the student engagement relationship with the feedback as well as the tutors’ perceptions of learning, teaching and assessment that such successes can be established. The Rationale Feedback is closely related to learning and teaching theories making it a significant element in learning despite the theories that may be adapted.
(1995) conducted a study about Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking, The idea of Collaborative learning in, the gathering and blending of Students with the end goal of accomplishing a scholastic objective, has been generally inquired about and pushed all through the expert writing. The expression "Collaborative learning" refers to a guideline technique in which Students at different execution levels cooperate in little groupings toward a shared objective. The students are in charge of each other 's learning and also on their own. Along these lines, the achievement of one Student causes different Students to be
In my reading, chapter one gave me some good information about assumptions and learning tasks. Jane Vella talked about assumptions in the first chapter and how the first assumption from learners arrive with the capacity to do the work that is involved in learning. Learners must be active, be engaged and held accountable for their learning. The second assumption is that learners learn when they are actively engaged-cognitive, emotionally, and physically –with the content. Then the third assumption follows closely on new content and can be presented through learning tasks (Vella pp 2-5).
A key to effective PMII is the selection of peers to participate in the intervention (Appendix A). First, it is important to select peers who exhibit good social/language skills; have positive social interactions with the learner with ASD; are generally compliant with adult directives; attend school on a regular basis; have similar schedules/academic groupings as the learner with ASD; and express a willingness to participate. After selecting the peer, one must plan for the actual training session. Peer training sessions should be based on the individual needs of the learner with ASD. It is important to begin the training by teaching peers to recognize and appreciate individual differences.