Students should have a good understanding of the assessment marking criteria. The design of these marking criteria involves the discussion of learning outcomes. The implementation of self-assessment involves a lot of effort, reflection and planning on behalf of the tutor. Students should be made to perceive self-assessment as a natural process in their learning. They should be actively involved in its implementation and its importance in lifelong learning.
(Johnson,Johnson, and Smith, 1998). Students focus their attention on the assigned task to increase his or her own learning and the learning of group members. Interaction and effective communication between students is critical during cooperative work assignments. Group members equally share the assigned task, tutor other students in the group to learn and complete the assigned task. Learning course content and team skills while working on assigned tasks is an expected outcome of cooperative learning.
It also helps the teacher to demonstrate achievement of the learning outcomes. Effective learning involves the learner’s interaction with people other than the teacher and with the resource provided by the teacher. The teaching techniques that is associated with effective learning are: - Modelling -
Research has demonstrated that students learn best when the educational process is purposeful, integrated, and collaborative. In most cases, faculties have learning goals for the students or courses they teach. However, these may not be made explicit. The assessment process involves articulating your learning goals, so that they may be communicated to others, and evaluated for continued improvement. Helps in having explicit goals also facilitates the integration of courses and programs to identify areas of omission or redundancy, and allows you to document success.
Generating appropriate student learning activity. 3. Providing timely feedback which students pay attention to. 4. Helping students to internalize the disciplines standards and notion of equality.
In accordance with Piaget’s theory, the learner interacts with objects and events available in the physical and social environment and therefore comprehends the objects or events using the process of assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. The learners, therefore, construct their own conceptualizations and use them to generate solutions to problems. This theory also suggests that humans create and construct knowledge as they try to bring meaning to their experiences. In the differentiated classroom, teachers should facilitate the learning process by organizing learning activities and using variety of aid material according to the level of students’ cognitive structure to enable them to construct knowledge through their
Introduction Enhancing learning for students involves more than just being able to apply general learning and teaching principles or guidelines. In Educational Studies 1: Classroom Learning and Student Development, we have been learned about how students learn. Most importantly, it involves inquiry-based activities which familiarize us with the roles of teachers in promoting learning and catering for student diversity and individual differences. Throughout the past lessons, one of the most influential, inspiring theories is the theories of motivation to understand and improve educational processes, which means helping our students see the true value of what they are doing and giving them reasonable expectation of success in achieving it.
Several studies has been done on cooperative learning and it has been said that cooperative learning results in effective learning method where students are encouraged to learn actively, develop critical thinking and develop their learning from rote learning to effective learning. One very important aspect to look while we talk about cooperate learning, for that Hootstein says, “Teachers, in an attempt to provide for students’ needs for affiliation, autonomy, and physical activity, may also use cooperative learning strategies for students’ needs to be social.” (Hootstein, 1994) According to Slavin, cooperative learning develops high-order thinking skills, enhances motivation and improves interpersonal relations (slavin, 1985). Such group format encourages students to become active participants rather than passive recipient of information (Emmer & Evertson, 2009). All the students do not have the same ability in understanding the concept or the activity they are assigned with. Some students will take time to understand the concept whereas some students when the tasks are assigned they complete it within no time.
Researches show that EFL students can improve their speaking and listening by group working and this method is more effective than old methods which were based on teachers as speaker and students as listener. In this method teacher and students work together for their goal. This interaction can provide a valuable learning and give students this chance to achieve their aim. Group working is a collection of individuals that come together to achieve a stated objective. Hence, group working can be used as a method to motivate students and encourage active learning.
Therefor; reflective teaching approach may help to foster the learning of the students, and reflective teaching approach is not only for the students it also help for the teacher to further improve their teaching. Reflection help both student and teacher to improve their critical thinking skills. According to John Dewey who is often considered to be the originator of the concept of reflection defines reflective practice as an ‘active persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support in, and the further conclusions to which it tends…’(1993, p. 6). Reflection is a continuous process, Statement of the