The important features of child ego state are creativity, anxiety, depression, dependence, fear, joy, emotional sentimental etc. (iii) Transactions A transaction is a basic unit of social interaction. The heart of transactional analysis is the study and diagramming of the exchanges between two persons. Thus where a verbal or non verbal stimulus from one person is being responded by another person a transaction occurs. Transactional analysis can help us to determine which ego state is most heavily influencing our behaviour and the behaviour of the other people with whom we interact.
On the contrary, cognitive development is motivated by interaction with people such as teachers and parents in Vygotsky’s theory (Vygotsky,1978). He claimed that individuals are likely to gain more cognitive functions with appropriate assistance and
Self-concept is one’s answer to the question of “who am I”. It helps us to organize our thinking and guide our social behavior. The formation of self-knowledge can be explained in four psychological theories, introspection, the looking glass self, social comparison, and self-perception. Our image is different with our self-concept and others views, because we create a favorable self-presentation with tactics by impression management. Self-awareness not only enables our self-reflection, but also motivates us to be a better person.
Children culture and inequality ‘Culture’ refers to the acquisition of awareness of one’s knowledge, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the world, and matters of possessions obtained by a group of people during generations through individual and group striving. (Spencer-Oatey, 2012) Culture give an identity to a group ensures survival and increases the feeling of belonging. Identity development Identity is an individual's self-explanation that stresses the enduring personalities of the self. To understand identity, the individual can justify the origins of these personalities features and the impacts behind those origins. Inclusive identity includes an interpretation
Social development in early childhood The term social development is inter-related with emotional development in the early childhood stage. Children learn social skills very early in life which determine their social competence. They interact more with other children and adults to learn social skills. Following are the main characteristics of social development in are in early childhood: • The term “social development” includes formation of relationships with peers for children during early childhood. Page 4 • The child begins to understand the concept of gender identification as one understand the difference between girls’ outfits and guys’
Basically, the theory of social independence emphasizes on the interaction amongst group members that determines the outcome of a situation, and this interaction is dependent on structure of the group’ goals (Deutsch, 1949 as cited in Johnson & Johnson, 2003). Social interactions influence the final outcomes of the group tasks. Social independence occurs when the group members share the goals with action of each individual affecting the individual’s outcomes (Johnson, Johnson, & Roger, 2006). External validity and generalizability of research were established based on social interdependence in an extent to which very rare for social sciences (Johnson & Johnson, 2003). Social interdependence has been categorized into three types: positive
Bandura’s social learning theory highlights the idea that much of human learning occurs in a social environment; by observation of others, people acquire knowledge of rules, skills, strategies, beliefs and attitudes. Individuals also learn about the usefulness and suitability of behaviours by observing models and the consequences of modelled behaviours and they act in accordance with their beliefs concerning the expected outcomes of action. Social learning is a part of the behavioural approach to psychology. “Behaviourism is primarily concerened with observable behaviour, as opposed to internal events such as thinking and emotion. Observable or external behaviour can be objectively and scientifically measured.
To improve one’s ability in emotional intelligence, it is important to understand the elements/competences involved in it. Each competence needs to be comprehended along with how it would look like in action. The competence themselves can be classified as: Figure 2.2.4: Competences of EI The personal competence comprises of self-awareness, self-regulation, and motivation. The social competence comprises of empathy and social skills. Personal competence is one’s ability to be aware of one’s emotions and manage behaviour and tendencies.
Cognitive development is a process which enhancing the ability of learning. The cognitive theories emphasize on conscious thoughts which highlight the mental aspects of development such as logic and memory. The primary factors of cognitive theories is the structure and development of the individual’s thought processes and the means of these processes can effort the person’s understanding of the world. Therefore, the cognitive theories study on how this understanding, and the expectations it creates, can affect the individual’s behavior. There are three types of cognitive development theories in human which are Piaget’s Cognitive development theory, Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive theory and Information-Processing theory.
Reflected appraisal is the most important process because of its emphasis within symbolic interaction theory. The reflected appraisals process states that we come to see ourselves and to evaluate ourselves as we think others evaluate us. Social comparison is the second process important to the development of self-esteem. This is a process in which individuals assess their own abilities and virtues by comparing them to those of others. The process involves self-attributions which refers to the tendency to make inferences about ourselves from direct from direct observation of our behaviour and its consequences.