Baker (2001) defines language ability as a general, latent disposition, a determinant of eventual language success. For some, it tends to be used as an outcome, similar but less specific than language skills, providing an indication of current language level. If we confine the question ‘Are you bilingual?’ to ability in two languages, the issue becomes ‘what ability’? There are four basic language abilities: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These four abilities fit into two dimensions: receptive and productive skills; oracy and
Today, we learn at least two foreign languages in our lives for different purposes. Generally, our main purpose is to communicate with other people. We can come across different opportunuties in life. For example, we can take visas from varied countries. That’s why we have to learn their languages to communicate with people living there.
Also, he discovers new opportunities or has the chance of experiencing different personalities, of living different lives. Withal, there are several advantages of being bilingual. To begin with, within our native language we develop our own way of thinking and feeling, way
Polyglossia (Harry 1992) refers to the communities where a number of languages or varieties are used by individuals within the community for specific purposes where these languages or varieties have different roles. A person may speak his or her language more easily than other languages, but he or she remains considered as ‘plurilingual’, a term suggested by European Council and a term ‘multilinguality’ is used by Aronin and O Laoire (2004) as the state of knowing two or more languages. It is the use of languages for the purpose of communication whereas a person has proficiency of varying degrees in several languages and experience of several cultures. In the words of Haugen(1953:7)’ bilingualism is ‘the point where the speaker of one language can produce complete, meaningful utterances in other language’, so multilingualism is the capacity of a society, institution, groups and individuals to engage on a regular basis with more than one language in everyday life. It is the product of human capability to communicate in different languages.
Most population of the world is bilingual or multilingual with monolingual speakers in the minority.I begin saying that the two languages of a bilingual person differ not only in their lexical and grammatical repertories for expressing and describing emotions but also in the sets of emotional scripts regulating emotional talk.Language is not just a tool or an instrument for expressing someone s feelings that could be equally well expressed in other language. The degree of proficiency that bilingual speakers achieve in their two languages depends largely on the opportunities they have to use each of them. If both of the languages that bilingual people speak are valued in the wider society, then it is likely they will use both their languages in a wide variety of contexts (for example, in the home, church, community, and school) Almost all disscutions are connected with feelings because when someone tells to another one about a subject such as family, school, work, etc they feel that he or she deeply understands him or her, so that there is not that barrier which appears
Language contact result from migration. It can also be brought about by an interaction between ad stratum languages. An intrusive language generally acts as either a super stratum or a substratum. It occurs in a variety of phenomena, including language convergence, borrowing and relexification. Pidgins, mixed languages, creoles, and code-switching are some of the most common products of language contact.
Transition: Now, allow me to begin with the first reason why we need to learn foreign language. BODY PARAGRAPH 1: Main point: student should learn foreign language because it helps us to enhance our communication skills. Supporting detail:- As we know, in Malaysia consist of variety of ethnics and cultures and also have been visited with tourist from another country. By learning foreign language, it will easier for us to communicate with them when sometime they are asking us about a place and about our country too. We can well mixed with foreigner when we can speak with their language.
As many researchers (Brown, 1974; Bahn&Eldaw, 1993; Howarth, 1998) have found that collocational knowledge benefits second language learners in their language competence, communicative competence and native-like fluency. Learners who have collocational knowledge will shift
In short, language learning strategies are applied by language learners as a means to acquire and to use information that learners have acquired, stored or recalled, and can also promote autonomous learning (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990:78-9; Nisbet & Shucksmith, 1986:12, 92). Thus, as many researchers have defined language learning strategies, the background and classification of language learning strategies should be briefly summarized in the following section. 2.2.1 Language Learning Strategies: Definition Before attempting to explain and classify language learning strategies as used by speakers of other languages, I would like first of all to provide a rationale for the choice of the term strategy. Although used by many prominent writers (such
Mother Tongue Interference Recently, learning or having another language besides the native language is important. As learners begin to study second or foreign language, they may face some difficulties and problems. Firstly, language acquisition refers to the ways by which persons own the ability to perceive and understand language, also to make and use words and sentences to communicate (Lightbown& Spada, 2013). According to Yule (2010) “it is the gradual development of ability in a language by communicating with the native speaker of this language” p.187. While the second language refers to the added language, so it may be the third, fourth or tenth to be received (Torike,2006).