Five Factors Of Bilingualism

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2.1 Bilingualism
There are many language in this world used to communicate. This phenomenon allows people to communicate with their own language. The diversity of language also invites people to learn another language based on their willingness or need. Those reasons are as a factor of the occurrence of bilingualism. Definitions of bilingualism range from a minimal proficiency in two languages, to an advanced level of proficiency which allows the speaker to function and appear as a native-like speaker of two languages. As stated by Grosjean (1984, p. 1) is a phenomenon of using two or more languages. Myers-Scotton (2006, p. 2) mentioned that bilingualism or often called as multilingualism, is the ability of someone to speak more than two language.
Umar and Napitupulu (1994, p.9-10) stated that there are five factors why a person can be bilingual; mobilization, nationalism, education, culture and religion. Mobilization happens when there is an interaction between immigrants and native, the immigrants will learn the native language. Nationalism happens when there is a necessity to have a legal language of a country. Education and culture happen if those language and culture spread to other places, so person who want to learn about it have to understand the language first. Religion is usually written in a language, such as Arabic in Islam or Latin in Christian. In the same vein with Troike (2003, p. 9 cited in Linawati, 2015, p. 16), there are some reasons of someone becomes
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