Popular sovereignty is the idea that "governments derive their authority from the consent and support of people, not from God" (Alpha). Until the modern era, most kings and governments claimed their authority from God, a concept called divine right of kings. The concept was based in part of a "social contract" between individuals and their government, a concept created by writers like John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. A corollary of popular sovereignty is that if a government fails or mistreats its people, the people have the right to replace it (The Social Contract). Because the Third Estate formed the vast majority of the French nation, it was entitled to representation in the national government.
Those were federalism, functionalism and neorealism and they give explanations of the European integration. Those three grand theories will be explained with the people supporting them. Federalism describes a state structure in which different political levels cooperate together in order to solve state’s issues. In this theory a fundamental method is the distribution of the government power in a way that the tasks would be performed by central and regional governments coherently but they will still remain independent. The other function of federalism is to integrate structures such as economic, social or foreign policy.
As a product of the Revolutions of 1848, European sentiment towards Nationalism grew extensively among the middle and lower classes. European ethnic groups and nations desired a self-determined state that represented their group and culture. As a result, both Germany and Italy would experience unification movements within several decades. By 1871, the Italian states would be unified under the Italian tricolour flag; and in the same year, the German states would become integrated into Germany under Wilhelm I of Prussia. Nationalism is both a political and social system in which the nation-state is of utmost importance -- in which nation-states act in their own self-interest and are of full sovereignty.
The Communists believed loyalty should be towards class and not towards the nation. The overthrow of the Tsar Regime in Russia and the internal problems in Germany gave them a hope of an impending proletariat revolution. By 1918, the communist ideology had taken its roots in Germany and other Western European countries and it was seen as a threat to democracy. Even after the crushing defeat of communists their presence cannot be denied during the Inter War Period. Fascism In opposition to the Pacifist and the Communist, extremist nationalists began to take charge of the situation.
The League’s aims were to stop wars, improve the quality of people’s lives and jobs, to encourage disarmament and to enforce the Treaty of Versailles which concluded World War One. The main aim although was to create a better world by means of peaceful negotiations rather than resorting to violence. All the peace treaties had the Covenant of the League of Nations written into them, and in this way many leaders hoped that the League would be recognized by the most influential countries. This was the case for Britain and France as the both wanted peace and France wanted protection from Germany as they were militarily weaker. However, the United States of America’s unwillingness to participate in the League, even though her
European integration is a theory based on the process of industrial, political, legal, economic, social and cultural integration of states wholly or partially in Europe, or in simpler terms, European integration is known as “a Europe without borders.” On the opposite end, there are those who question the triumphant representations of Napoleon and dispute the claims that his success was based upon his conquest of Europe. One such historian, in his 1997 work titled, Napoleon, Geoffrey Ellis reassesses the glorious depictions of Napoleon and the nature of Napoleonic power to assert his claim that Napoleon’s true legacy was left by his lasting political endeavors. In an attempt to prove his argument, Ellis begins his work by presenting Napoleon’s upbringing and military background. He claims Napoleon’s Corsican background and French education were key components in molding his personality that would later define his imperial
Taking advantage of his rising popularity, Napoleon became the ruler of France and eventually the ruler of an empire. Napoleon Bonaparte had a positive impact on France and Europe due to the military, political and economic stability he restored to France, the laws he put in place, the reforms he introduced to the European countries he conquered and his improvement of the education system. After a time of uncertainty in France brought about by the French Revolution, Napoleon restored the stability of France through the military. France had experienced a time of military failure during the 1790’s when other European nations declared war on France. Napoleon emerged in this time as a skilled soldier and tactician.
The art and architecture of the Parthenon and Pantheon were stellar symbols of their countries’ superior status in the world. While both had governments that allowed citizens to vote, the real power in Rome was in the hands of the emperor. That the emperor was considered a god is reflected in the celestial aspects of the Pantheon. However, Greek society was a democracy and the Parthenon’s frieze indicated that all citizens would participate in the governance of their country. Although the two buildings have features in common, the Parthenon was the result of the culture expressing their democratic ideals, while the Pantheon illuminates the ideals of the republic of the Roman Empire.
The idea of Nationalism is that people support their country, defend it, fulfill its destiny by extending boundaries and rule it independently by their own people. How did Nationalism start during the French Revolution? : When the monarchy in France was overthrown, the French Revolution
Bello-Imam (2005) opined that, separation of powers among the three arms of government is necessary in order to maintain personal liberty and integrity, while fusion of powers is indispensable in order to promote harmony and good governance. There is no doubting the fact that, for efficiency to exist in governance there must be in existence elements of separation of powers and fusion of powers. A comparison of the Nigerian and French local government system will not be complete without considering the similarities between both systems. The similarities are as follows: It is noteworthy that both the French and Nigerian Local Governments perform functions that are stipulated for them by law. For example, the fourth schedule of the 1999 constitution in Nigeria stipulates the functions of local governments in Nigeria.