The humanistic perspective of personality was theorised by Abraham Maslow who created the Hierarchy of Needs to represent two areas of needs an individual must achieve in order to reach self-actualisation. The two groups are divided by their importance; first is our deficiency needs, separated into four lower levels which are physiological, safety and security, belonging and love, and our esteem needs. The growth needs can only be reached once we have achieved all of our deficiency needs and we have not reverted back a step in our search for self-actualisation. The growth needs Maslow stated are understanding, aesthetic, self-actualisation, transcendence. Carl Rogers, another psychological theorist, originally stated that achievement of self-actualisation
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs and the four principles of Ethics are also evident in this assignment. 1.1 Maslow Hierarchy of needs This pyramid concept was created by a psychologist named Abraham Maslow. [Figure 1] The most basic needs are at the base and the more complex needs of the patient is at the top of the pyramid ¹. The lower four needs are referred to as deficiency needs, these needs are due to a lack of something and they have to be satisfied to avoid unpleasantness.¹
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Countless psychologists have theorized about human behavior, but few theories have had the impact that Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs has had. Maslow was looking to explain the motivation behind people’s actions. He developed his theory to represent the needs people need to meet to be comfortable in their living situations. Based on Maslow’s theory, phycologists can determine why people partake in the actions they do. For example, people who do not feel belonging and love as children are more likely to join gangs or other organizations to gain a sense of belonging.
All human kind have certain needs which must be fulfilled. Lack of these needs will compel one to take actions to fulfill these needs. Maslow’s hierarchy lists five of these basic needs that all human requires. He said that we have needs that need to be fulfilled in specific order. His hierarchy is rather a motivation than a checklist.
People need authentic human interaction to be truly happy. This claim is supported by the novel, Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, the film, Pleasantville directed by Gary Ross, and the article, Why Loneliness Is Bad for Your Health by Nancy Shute. In Fahrenheit 451, people need authentic human interaction to be truly happy. This is supported with Montag and Mildred’s relationship and how Mildred says the parlor walls are “really fun” (18), but she still tried to commit suicide.
These demands are ranked in the order that they most preoccupy the individual. To illustrate, an individual is not preoccupied by physiological needs such as hunger or thirst, he is then free to seek out that which gives him a sense of safety; moreover, if the individual isn’t preoccupied with finding a safety, warmth, and shelter, he can spend time time seeking out companionship (Huitt, 2007). Maslow proposes 8 levels of motivational needs, the first four, termed the deficiency needs, need to be fulfilled before the second four, the growth needs, can be adressed. The deficiency needs are: bodily needs, the need for safety, social needs, and self esteem. The Growth needs are: the search for understanding, the need to be aesthetically pleased, self actualization, and finally, self-transcendence, which is the highest level, where one has acquired wisdom (Huitt,
It is vital as people need to have a sense of belonging and acceptance from their social group such as family and friends to prevent form loneliness. Worse still, a new research suggests that loneliness and social isolation are as much a threat to our health. (Gupta, 2015). The next level of needs is self-esteem needs such as achievement, independence, status, prestige and managerial responsibility
Social needs Social needs refer to the relationship building between employees. In this purpose organizations allow breaks during working hours, arrange picnics, sport events, and team works. It gives employee a short relief from tedious work and makes the relation stronger between them (Hodgetts, 1987; Reece, 2014). Esteem
Maslow proposed five-level classification of human needs as physiological, safety, love, esteem and self-actualisation. He suggested that physiological needs are the basic needs and these needs should be satisfied first and then subsequent needs emerge. Self-actualisation is the highest order of needs and to fulfill this need a person should be biologically efficient, usually in better health, both mentally and physically. The degree of satisfaction is resulted by fulfillment of these hierarchy of needs. However, these needs can vary individual to individual regarding their personal characteristics, pathology, and health care settings.
The first one is Maslow’s need theory which is a motivational theory that illustrates the five types of human being needs in hierarchical pyramid structure. The first type of Maslow’s hierarchy is psychological need such as air, food, shelter, water. The second type is safety needs such as security from outside threats and freedom from fear. The third type is belongings need such as friendship, trust and acceptance, receiving and giving affection and love. The forth type is esteem needs such as self-respect and to be respected from others.
Chapter two in the textbook Reflect & Relate an Introduction to Interpersonal Communication by Steven McCornack talks all about what “self” is and how to achieve complete fulfillment for one’s self which is also known as self-actualization. The components of self, as described in the book are, “ . . . self-awareness, self-concept, and self-esteem” (McCornack 39). Self-awareness is the idea in which one can take a moment to move feelings, beliefs, and other external influences aside and just evaluate oneself in a holistic perspective that is not skewed by opinions of others, etc. Having the ability to actually think about who one is brings a lot of power and mental stability in such a way that allows for improvement.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. This theory lies on the premise that people can rarely achieve their full potential without having met their basic needs; if the target population lacks of basic needs, any intervention that does not address this particular issue will fail. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is based on the physiological and psychological needs. Once these needs are covered, we will be able to engage someone to change habits in order to achieve our goals. It is highly important to recognize the target population and their basic needs.
Whereas, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs were also divided into different stages from the physiological needs, safety needs, love or belongings, esteem and then to the stage of self-actualization (Maslow,
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is displayed as a pyramid and is built on a foundation of basic needs that must not only be met but satisfied before higher levels of the needs are met. On the bottom of the pyramid are physiological needs and these are required to sustain life such as breathing, water, food and shelter to mention a few. Once these are met, people can move onto the next level of need which is safety. Safety needs can be financial, medical, safe environment and job security. Next on the pyramid are social needs which include friendship, belongingness, love and acceptance.