Enteritidis was responsible for the largest number of food-borne outbreaks, cases and deaths reported in the United States of America (Bean et al., 1997). In 2006, Salmonella was the main cause of reported outbreaks of food borne infection in the European Union (EU) ( Le Bouquin et al. (2010). In K.S.A. the reported cases of human salmonellosis has decreased from 1336 cases in 1990 and then increased gradually to reach 2197 cases in 1995 and decreased again to 1927 cases in the year 2001 (M.H,1990-2001).
Another condition is if the human host does not keep proper personal and environmental hygiene. Many pathogens thrive in dirty environments and if an individual refuses to keep proper environmental hygiene, such individual is increasing the chances of him being infected by pathogens. Finally, many pathogens are transmitted by vectors and if humans do not take the care to curtail the activity of pathogen vectors, humans are more liable to be infected by the pathogens that these vectors help to transmit. 2.In order for a pathogen to cause disease, describe three things that must happen. The first is that the host needs to be exposed to the pathogen.
Partly by the bacterial enzyme, and partly by the enzyme released from synovium, inflammatory cell and pus. • Effect confined on articular cartilage. Extensive erosion can occur due to synovial proliferation and ingrowth. Causes • Septic arthritis develops when bacteria, virus of fungi spread through the blood to a joint. • It may also occur when the joint is directly infected with a microorganism from an injury or during surgery.
Wound infection with multiple organisms may even result to multiple organ failure or death of the patient when it becomes chronic. Wound may even be infected multiple organisms like aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive cocci and gram- negative bacilli including yeast though organisms such as Streptococcus sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Clostridium, Pepto-streptococcus, Fusobacterium and Aeromonas are found highly predominant (Henry and John, 2001). Many antibiotics are used to treat wound pathogens
Back before the 1890’s Clostridium perfringens used to be known as Clostridium welchii. F.W. Andrews and E. Klein discovered that Clostridium perfringens was associated with food poisoning, and in just a couple years specifically 1892, this microorganism would be found in different types of gangrene, appendicitis, puerperal fever, and enteritis. (3) .. Gas gangrene was very widespread in World War 1, complicating 6% of open fractures and 1% of all open
However, the minor populations of patients have severe infection of acne vulgaris. There are many factors which may lead to occurrence of acne vulgaris. The most important factor regarding appearance of acne vulgaris is known as genetic predisposition which is accompanied by deep hormonal changes. The prevalence of acne vulgaris in Dark skin/black people, the Mediterranean region people, the Caspian Sea region and the Persian Gulf region people is higher than other regions. Moreover, young boys (male teenagers) and adult women are the main target for acne vulgaris.
Staphylococcus Aureus belongs to the extremely common bacteria of microflora of the skin and mucous membranes of the humans. These pathogens cause many infections, including superficial and deep purulent infections, poisoning, urinary tract infection etc. In the US, staphylococcus bacteria are supposed to be the leading cause of sepsis, postoperative wound and prosthesis infections. In addition, staphylococcus belongs to one of the leading causes of bacterial food poisoning. Staphylococcus Aureus is one of the most dangerous human pathogen.
INTRODUCTION Giardia Lamblia is a protozoan parasite. About 200 million people had infected in the world but this value just an estimate since that only 500 000 of new cases reported in a year. Previously, higher prevalence of occurance in the developing countries (20% and 30%) compare to developed countries (2% and 5%) (Wilson, 1984; Farthing, 1994).. Malaysia was considered as the developing country. Giardia lamblia may infect human through ingesting of it cysts. Hence, people with low hygiene and contaminated water supply have high risk of being infected.
Introduction Role of fHbp in the immune evasion of N. meningitidis Tom Lotze Neisseria meningitides or meningococcus is well known for causing severe diseases such as meningitis and septic shock as a result of infection, both of which are highly mortal (Seib et al. 2009). Despite these serious consequences, N. meningitidis is part of the normal flora of the nasopharynx of 40% of adults worldwide, and the infection usually goes by asymptomatically (Schneider et al. 2007; Haralambous et al. 2006).
Cystic Fibrosis is a life-threatening genetic disease that causes persistent lung infections and limits the ability to breathe because of a thick build-up of mucus in the lungs. The mucus accumulation in the lungs is an environment where bacteria thrive. Many patients with CF are susceptible to opportunistic pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenza, with P. aeruginosa being the most important. Immune systems of CF patients are often compromised making them
Bacteria and viruses are spread throughout an environment on a daily basis, which can trigger symptoms of an individual with the disease. Just like most diseases, Crohn’s can be acquired by consuming bacteria from the disease or catching a virus that may lead to
Ebola Viruses There are many different ways to pass away, some harsher than others. In “The Hot Zone” By Richard Preston, there are a few different viruses explained to be deadly to not only humans, but other species as well. The hot zone is an area on earth that contains lethal, infectious organisms. Marburg virus, Ebola Zaire, and Sudan virus all contribute to making the hot zone so pernicious. One of the viruses mentioned in “The Hot Zone” that significantly contributes to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) is the Marburg virus disease (MARV) is rare but a severe hemorrhagic fever.