While logic is firmly rooted in reason, perceptions are just as firmly rooted in one’s senses and can easily be corrupted. Many kinds of faulty logic or perception interfere with our ability to think critically, for example, superstition, argument from ignorance, false analogies, irrelevant comparison and fallacies. Therefore, I believe that perception is certainly not reality and most mistakes in thinking are inadequacies of perception rather than mistakes of logics. Perception is defined as the ability to see, hear or becomes aware of something through the senses (Nature of Logic and Perception). However, since the senses are susceptible to personal interpretation, they are therefore potentially unreliable sources of data.
The passage first talks about the proper conditions needed to experience the effects and phenomenons described. The author then goes on to briefly explain some malfunctions in our brains and says, “Those are ‘false positives,’ reports that there is light when there isn’t. We see light when we shouldn’t and we fail to see light when, by the
David Foster Wallace argues that reality can be mundane. However, if people focus on what others are going through, then they can learn to empathize and understand humanity better. A behavior is a snap shot of how that person is acting in that moment. There are lots of moments where behaviors may not accurately describe someone. If people are constantly operating unconsciously and only ever taking what they see face value then they are not relating or understanding others; even more what they are thinking about other’s is stereotypical and possibly hurtful.
Arguments for dualism The most frequently used argument in favour of dualism appeals to the common-sense intuition that conscious experience is distinct from inanimate matter. If asked what the mind is, the average person would usually respond by identifying it with their self, their personality, their soul, or some other such entity. They would almost certainly deny that the mind simply is the brain, or vice versa, finding the idea that there is just one ontological entity at play to be too mechanistic, or simply unintelligible. Many modern philosophers of mind think that these intuitions are misleading and that we should use our critical faculties, along with empirical evidence from the sciences, to examine these assumptions to determine whether there is any real basis to them. Another important argument in favor of dualism is that the mental and the physical seem to have quite different, and perhaps irreconcilable, properties.
In order to be right about claiming that the senses do deceive, a person should have recognized that an error has actually occurred. So the person distinguished between being mistaken and being correct. (For example knowing that heat mirages on the roads are deceptions, one has successfully classed them as optical illusion). Thus one is able to see through the deception and thus avoid being deceived. Oddly, it must be concluded that in presenting examples of how the senses deceive, one is also presenting examples of how we are able to see through deceptions.
Reconstructive memory is crucial to an understanding of the reliability of eyewitness testimonies as the recall of those testimonies can be subject to personal interpretation values, and the way one makes sense of the world. For instance, many people may believe that storing information is like recording and remembering is like playing back what was recorded. However, memory does not work this way. In actuality, we do not store information exactly as it is given to us; rather, people extract from information the general meaning. We make sense of information by trying to fit it into schemas (which are a way of organizing information).
A logical fallacy is an error in reasoning, it is done manipulatively, and it is done on purpose to target people’s ignorance and stupidity. The statement being claimed might appear to be truthful or accurate, but due to an error on the claim it is not considered to be truthful nor accurate. There are various types of logical fallacies, and they are structured to help you identify misleading statements and recognize that there is an error in the information. The trial of Elizabeth Proctor does fit into the idea of logical fallacy. The type of logical fallacy that applies to the trial Elizabeth Proctor is a false cause.
He first goes on to note that the senses can deceive us, and that things are not always just as they seem at first glance to be. He claims our senses can deceive us and our very own perception of reality or what events are happening around us can be false. We may believe that what we are experiencing is true, but who’s to say that we are not actually living some other existence but our sense of reality is deceiving us. Descartes then goes on to mention the dream problem, where he goes on to say that we may dream of the physical world but who’s to say that we are not imagining our very existence. Can we truly distinguish everything we know or perceive to be true from our dreams and imagination, and possibly doubt that anything physical truly exists, that there is an external world at
A. In order to clarify the terms which we will be using throughout our description, we can start exposing what mindreading means. This term is generally understood to mean encompasses the ability to read other´s minds, that is, being able to apprehend (infer?) mental states (desires, feelings, aims, thoughts) different of our own. One example of mental state is false belief, which can be explained as a wrong assumption held by someone.
The reason being, stereotypes. A stereotype is a specific image or idea about a particular person or group. Psychology today discusses “ In their explicit use, stereotypes serve as a set of clear and open biased beliefs that people consciously use as part of their thoughts, decisions and social actions.” People think of stereotypes without even knowing that they may be stereotyping a certain person or group of people because it has become a natural thing. The question that is left unanswered is if people were aware that they are stereotyping unconsciously would they change the way in which they thought. That would be greatly impossible because you can't just change the way someone thinks or believes.
2. One methodological limitations of this study is that the magnocellular cells responded to a chromatic change so the results could have been skewed and therefore made them inconclusive even though the experimenters tried to control for it. Another limitation is the fact that the experimenters cannot be sure if the way they chose to test their hypothesis could conclude that the parvocellular stream is responsible for pure chromatic cuing or if it was another variable affecting it. Also, I believe that by not including the reaction time for the misses and anticipatory trials they might neglected information that could have been useful in explaining other reasons for the outcomes in the experiment, since greater than 1,500 ms (1.5 seconds) does not seem too long. 3.
People can be easily manipulated with by small things. Sometimes these things can be so small that we cannot notice it. Our unconsciousness can be altered by this and can ultimately affect our perception of the world and our actions. It’s crazy to think that if the 9/11 conspiracy is true, what will we do now? What will the
Fricker advises different ways to overcome prejudicial credibility judgments they are: either try to change your perceptions to change your belief or start by changing your beliefs first then go back and change your beliefs. This can be challenging to some people because some people can not distinguish what is right from wrong in their own beliefs. Some may get their beliefs from seeing the same old perception we get form the same old stereotypes that makes our brain start thinking those false stereotypes as a true fact that one believes. Those false beliefs turn into conscious judgment towards a particular person or group of people. In order to control these prejudicial credibility judgments, one has to know where their problem emerges from
If you wish to take part in Percy’s solution, Morris suggests you can lose rationality and the ability to differentiate your thoughts and opinions from reality. This could quickly lead to you making incorrect assumptions, and believing things solely based on your eyesight, which consistently lies to you. In order to regain control, Morris offers a hybrid of Percy’s solution and his own. It is unwise to accept