At the centre of the molecule lies a five-carbon sugar, ribose, which is attached to the nitrogenous base adenine and to the chain of three phosphates. There are four main stages of respiration, firstly glycolysis which is the breaking down of glucose. The glucose is phosphorylated into glucose-6-phosphate by taking a phosphate from ATP. The glucose-6-phosphate changes to fructose via isomerisation. This is then phosphorylated for a second time, splitting another molecule of ATP, forming fructose-1-6-bisphosphate.
Glycolysis, or anaerobic respiration, is the first phase of sugar breakdown at the cellular level. Simple sugars such as glucose, fructose, and galactose are converted to a three carbon compound called pyruvate. Because this process occurs in the cytosol and does not require oxygen, it is termed anaerobic. The net energy yield from anaerobic respiration is two molecules of ATP. In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate is converted to lactic acid, which is a metabolic dead end.
The process occurs in the stroma and it produces G3P, which is used for carbohydrates such as glucose. Light-dependent reactions, on the other hand, rely on the presence of light energy. The process occurs in the thylakoid and it produces ATP, NADPH, and oxygen as a by-product. Chlorophyll contains a porphyrin ring that allows the free movement of electrons to easily gain or lose them. It is the most abundant pigment for photosynthesis as it absorbs light
Glucose, which is a six-carbon sugar, is at that moment divided into two molecules of a three carbon sugar. The breaking down of glucose, takes place in the cell’s cytoplasm. Glucose and oxygen are produced from this breakage, and are supplied to cells by the bloodstream. Also produced by glycolysis are, 2 molecules of ATP, 2 high energy electron carrying molecules of NADH, and 2 molecules of pyruvic acid. Glycolysis happens with or without the presence of oxygen.
Glycogen must first be degraded by glycogen phosphorylase to form glucose-1 phosphate. The whole process produces three ATP with glycogen as starting material. Due to lack of oxygen, enzyme lactate dehydrogenase catalyzes the reduction of pyruvate to lactic acid by NADH (Scanes, 2003). This process also regenerates NAD+ for glycolysis step in ATP formation. However, the built-up lactic acid inactivates the enzymes relating to glycolysis and slows down the process of ATP regeneration.
The reaction the occurred in the experiment was a reaction between acetic acid and isopentyl alcohol to form isopentyl acetate and water. The esterification of acetic acid with isopentyl alcohol occurs in four steps. The first step in the reaction mechanism is the protonation of acetic acid with a proton from the concentrated sulfuric acid that was added to the reaction mixture. In the second step, acetic acid reacts with the isopentyl alcohol to form a reaction intermediate which undergoes proton transfer or rearrangement protonation. Water acts as a leaving group in the third step and is removed from the reaction intermediate.
With the presence of NAD+, malate will then be transported into cytosol and will be converted back into oxaloacetate. The conversion will then reduces NAD+ into NADH and H+. The conversion from oxaloacetate into malate serve to move NAD+ from mitochondria into cytosol which is important in gluconeogenesis to proceed. In conclusion of this reaction, pyruvate carboxylase enzyme catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate into oxaloacetate in TCA cycle. But oxaloacetate needed to be converted into malate first before it can exit the mitochondria.
The process of cellular respiration, cells extract the energy stored in the glucose molecule (Campbell & Reece, 2005). The molecule is a sugar that provides major fuel for cellular to work. But the carbon skeleton works on the row material for synthesis of all different verities of small organic molecules. For example amino acids and fatty acids. Such sugar molecules that are not immediately used are incorporated into disaccharides and polysaccharides.
Glycolysis is the primary stage of the chain reactions in breaking down carbohydrates over endothermic that means consuming in heat and an exothermic reaction that means providing off heat reactions and catabolism. Expending an instance of one glucose particle, primarily 2 ATP particles be required to be hydrolyzed usage of water to split something addicted to tiny pieces into ADP and energy. A high-energy phosphate from ATP, creating glucose-6-phosphate, motivates the carbon backbone of glucose it has shown as ring
Whereas, when the light intensity is great, the rate of photosynthesis will be high. Introduction Photosynthesis is the process of converting energy from sunlight to chemical energy known as ATP which is necessary for all living organisms. The photosynthetic process uses raw materials such as water and carbon dioxide and releases oxygen and sugar as a byproduct (Mader, S. 2010). The chemical equation is: