Memory & Cognition Sandeep Shekhar Nomula 391821 Cognitive Psychology Winter Semester – 2014/15 Abstract Memory is the means by which we draw on our past experiences in order to use this information in the present. Cognition is the set of all mental abilities and processes related to knowledge such as memory, language, perception, problem solving & decision making, reasoning, abstract thinking etc. The purpose of this paper is to understand how memory and cognition works and how it can help us in performing tasks successfully in our daily life. The scientist found that the relation between memory for a consequential and emotional event and also for memory for the circumstances by which people learned about the
According to Hall and Itzin, a stereotype is an exaggerated, misleading and distorted representation of a group of people or a person through the reduction of that group or person to a few essential characteristics. Itzin explains a stereotype as representing “a set of ideas or a set of beliefs about people - an ideology rather than as people as they are.” Therefore stereotypes in the
Flashbulb Memories Memories play an important role in our lives, sometimes remembering a certain event can change our mood completely. There are many factors that can influence the formation of memories and how vividly we are going to recall of certain events. All of us can probably think of an example of an event that happened many years ago but we still remember it as if it happened yesterday. Such memories are called flashbulb memories because of their vividness and the details that can be remembered about them. Keeping that in mind the question that arises is what makes us remember certain events more vividly than others i.e.
The cognitive level of analysis aims to study how the inner processes of the mind processes information gained, and how they are interpreted and applied into the real world. Within this level of analysis, it was found that the cognitive and biological factors of our mind influence how we feel, or in other words, our emotions. Emotion can be defined as the body’s response to any specific situation. As all human beings can express how they feel through facial expressions, this suggests that emotions are biological rather than cognitive. However, emotions can be dependent on both the cognitive and biological factors of our body.
There are memories that are distributed into two different parts according to the information type. Topographic memory is the ability to recognize familiar places. Flashbulb memories are memories of a unique or highly emotional event. Our brain allows us to think, learn, remember the bad, good, emotional, and happy times in our life, it also helps us be creative. That would be impossible if we di not possess a memory.
Businesses must apprehend the psychology of colour in order to use it effectively. Colour can evoke emotions and therefore it can change our behavior too. For example a red sports car can create feelings of excitement, or a blue sea can create feelings of peace and calmness. This is also supported by science, as colour addresses one of our basic neurological needs for stimulation. Colour triggers very specific responses in the brain and in the whole body.
In this essay, I will be presenting some strengths and limitations of the reliability of one cognitive process, namely memory. Memory is defined as the process of organizing the multitude of information gathered through personal experience. Schema, defined as many networks of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations about aspects of the world, can help memory be more accurate, since people tend to remember details more vividly when their schemas are activated. However, each time a person recalls a memory, the memory is reconstructed. This is known as reconstructive memory.
(High Existence) Humans form mental models of the world using a system of beliefs, which also include their underlying assumptions. The real world they perceive is actually a cognitive creation in their minds; a mix of their thoughts, beliefs and external stimuli. Our senses only provide us with limited information; inferences fill up the remaining gaps. Perception and expression are two very different things. Languages play an integral role in affecting the perceptions and building blocks of reality that we exist in, and in the end show through expression the world we have perceived.
We have been used to living with perception so we molded our living around our senses and most of the knowledge we acquire is through them. However there are certain flaws to it, such as optical illusions and background that influences our perception, that makes us question how accurate our way of seeing the world is. Overall, sense perception is a good way of knowing if shared with other people so, with all the different perceptions of the world due to different life experiences, it all can be combined in a greater a more accurate perception of
The interpretation of an emotional context of cognitive activity may be conscious or unconscious and may or may not take the form of conceptual processing. The theory of Lazarus was very influential. He states that emotion is a disturbance that occurs in cognitive appraisal, physiological changes and action. Cognitive appraisal is when the individual assesses the event cognitively, which cues the emotion. Physiological changes are when the cognitive reaction starts biological changes such as increased heart rate or pituitary adrenal response.
In the article, “Mirrors in the Mind,” by Giacomo Rizzolatti, Leonardo Fogassi, and Vittorio Gallese, the question arises, “How do individuals understand another’s actions as well as their intentions, so effortlessly?” The indicative answer years ago would be merited to the brain’s ability for swift analysis. However, more recent research shows the cause as an unexpected “class of neurons” that ignite when a person executes an activity as well as when they witness another person executing the same activity. This “class of neurons” has been defined as “mirror neurons,” which seem to program patterns for explicit activities. Interestingly, these patterns aid people in understanding another’s activity apart from additional explanation. Through experimentation on primates, it was discovered that the mere observance of an occurrence or activity ignited certain
Surprise plays a role in the deciding which memories the brain should store because “anything that is unusual stands out” (6). Unusual things are remembered because they give the impression of being special, and tend to be more significant than common things. The emotional impact an event has on a person makes it more significant. “A moment correlated with a strong emotional state will be retained
If you wish to take part in Percy’s solution, Morris suggests you can lose rationality and the ability to differentiate your thoughts and opinions from reality. This could quickly lead to you making incorrect assumptions, and believing things solely based on your eyesight, which consistently lies to you. In order to regain control, Morris offers a hybrid of Percy’s solution and his own. It is unwise to accept
It is probable that we may still be influenced by what goes on around us but that should not deter us from trying to be the person we think we are our everyday lives. The Stanford Experiment demonstrated to us just how powerful being in different situations can affect our behavior. There is a lot that we can learn from this extreme operation but the most obvious is just that: one’s circumstances can hugely alter their actions and their perspectives. But it is not impossible to stay true to what one believes and that is one thing we can learn from this and apply in our everyday