One of the main essentials of life that all organisms need in order to function in our world is, energy. We receive that energy from the food that we eat. Cellular respiration is the most efficient way for a cell to receive the energy stored in food. In cellular respiration, a catabolic pathway, which breaks down the molecules into smaller units, in order to produce adenosine triphosphate, also known as, ATP. ATP, is used by cells in the act of regular cellular operations, it is a “high energy” molecule. This occurs in both eukaryotic cells, as well as, prokaryotic cells. In the prokaryotic cells, it takes place in the cytoplasm; in the eukaryotic cells, it takes place in the mitochondria.
Most gasoline has 10-15% alcohol produced from corn. As a result, some say, the price of food has risen, causing hardship, increased food prices, and other problems. What are the real facts? Gasoline has ethanol inside, ethanol comes from corn. Corn is the main source of ethanol, many people spend 50% or more of their income on food. Which causes the price of food to increase, but if prices increase it will cause people with low incomes to starve because they would not be able to afford food for themselves or for their family. Most people are worried that it could cause damage to the environment, by growing a lot of corn it can cause damage to the soil. When the soil is damaged it makes it hard for farmers to grow crops. Which will make food
A milk-based, litmus broth tube is incubated and observed after 48 hours. Observations include lactose fermentation without gas as well as with gas, the reduction of litmus, casein protein coagulation and casein and protein hydrolysis. These characteristics were all determined based on the color of the solution and the production of a curd, the curds density and the production of a gas. To determine the density of the curd, the tube was slightly turned to see rather or not it was mobile or concentrated towards the bottom.
The targets outlined in the document lack clear definitions and are vague in its wordings. Therefore, it is impossible to impose an exact measurement on any possible progress achieved. However, taking into account of the traditional ways of defining concepts and understanding issues, it is not difficult to achieve a rather general but accurate conclusion on the success or failure of reaching the targets. In short, by itself, the targets are not measurable, but with the past study and research accounted, the progress are very much comparable.
Differential media allows for the differentiation between two similar micro-organisms through how the bacteria may handle certain compounds found in the media or the different reactions that may take place when the bacteria is exposed to the medium (3). Selective media on the other hand allow only certain microbes to grow. This is due to the plate containing a limited amount of nutrients, compounds and chemicals that will deter the growth of certain bacteria (3). Dyes, antimicrobial substances, salts, certain growth inhibitors and, antibiotics are also found on this type of medium (3). The differential and selective media mentioned in this lab are as follows: Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) plate, MacConkey agar (MC) plate, Eosin Methylene Blue agar (EMB), and Hektoen Enteric Agar (HEA) (3). The MacConkey agar plate and the Mannitol Salt agar plate are both used in the identification of the unknown. The MC plate is a selective and differential medium. It is considered a selective medium because the bile salts and crystal violet aspect of the medium prevent the growth of gram positive bacteria (3). This medium is differential because of the lactose and neutral red. Neutral red acts as a pH indicator, it remains colorless when the pH is above 6.8 and becomes red when the pH falls lower than 6.8 (3). The gram-negative coliform type bacteria would turn this medium red, while bacteria that do not ferment lactose will not incur a color change. The MSA plate is also considered a selective and differential medium. MacConkey is commonly used to differentiate between different species in the Enterobacteriaceae family. MSA is considered selective because it contains 7.5% NaCl and only bacteria that can survive the high osmotic pressure due to the sodium chloride will be able to grow on this plate. This medium is considered differential because of mannitol and phenol red. Mannitol is a sugar alcohol
In this lab, our main focus was to find how sugar concentration affect yeast respiration rates. This was to simulate the process of cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is the process that cells use to transfer energy from the organic molecules in food to ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate). Glucose, CO2, and yeast (used as a catalyst in this experiment) are a few of the many vital components that contribute to cellular respiration. Sugar/ glucose is an important carbohydrate that can be made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. Carbon dioxide is given off as a waste product when energy is released by the breaking down of glucose. This can be used by plant cells in the process of photosynthesis to form new carbohydrates. Yeast is a single-celled fungus that can break down sugars (glucose) to help produce carbon dioxide.
The purpose of this lab is to use control variables to help identify different macromolecules. Biological systems are made up of these four major macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates are sugar molecules (monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides) which make them the most abundant macromolecule on the earth. Lipids (oils and fats, phospholipids and steroids) are insoluble in water and perform many functions such as energy source, essential nutrients, hormones and insulators (Lehman, 1955). Proteins are made up of peptide bonds holding amino acids together to perform biological functions like enzymes, antibodies, for transport and structure (Asmus, 2007). Lastly, nucleic acids
Planet earth is comprised by different ecosystems, which each one maintains the cycle and balance of storages and flows in a stable system. Certain ecosystems need from other ecosystems since they are the base to maintain balance. One of them is the tropical rain forest, which is best known as the base-structure of many other systems, such as the water cycle, the carbon cycle, and the biomass system on planet earth. Therefore, The Amazon tropical rain forest is considered one of the most important biomes due to its extension through nine different countries. However, taking in account its importance, the Amazon is being overexploited over the last few years since this system provides different natural resources that are indispensable for human
On the contrary, Johnathan Trent focuses on the innovative products that are being built to attack the pollution problem. Trent claims he set out to find a “biofuel which would compete with fossil fuels but did not compete with agriculture for water, fertilizer or land” (Trent). This shows how his invention will have a significant impact on the source from which humanity will derive its energy. Trent includes vague explained results from his experiment. Granted that this is a TED talk, the results he includes give one insight to the productivity of the invention. For instance, “it would produce 2,000 gallons [of biofuel from microalgae in waste water] per acre per year, it would produce over 2 million gallons of fuel, which is about 20 percent of the biodiesel,” by including these results Trent indicates
Vagrants camp is a vineyard primarily planted with Chenin blanc grape variation. Chenin blanc is a type of grape which is used to (i) produce white wine or (ii) blend with Sauvignon bland or Chardonnay to create a fresh zesty dry wine. Despite that the grapes were picked at 24.5 Brix, but because these grapes were used to produce cheap wine that was usually blended with other varieties, however this was not a major concern when compared to weight of the fruit. Upon deciding whether or not to pick the grape, the interns should estimate the maturity of the grapes with these criteria: sugar content, acid content, pH level, color, ease of removal from pedicels, texture/skin features, aroma, flavor, chewy character, after taste and tannins. They
Yeast is alive because it can to metabolize and respond to environmental changes. The purpose of the first experiment was to determine whether yeast can metabolize. The bromothymol blue solution with yeast changed from blue to yellow. Bromothymol blue is an acid-base indicator that turns yellow in the presence of acid. The color change indicates that carbonic acid was formed from the reaction of water and carbon dioxide, a byproduct of metabolization. These results accept the hypothesis: if yeast can metabolize, then the bromothymol blue solution should turn yellow from the production of carbon dioxide. Only the bromothymol blue solution with yeast turned yellow, suggesting that the yeast caused the color change. The yeast consumed sugar, produced
To prepare YPD agar, mentioned in Table 1 nutrient ingredients in given concentration were weighed and added to 200 ml of distilled water. The mixture was autoclaved (SMS ASL80 MSV) for 1.5 hours at 121°C. On sterile plates, 25-30 ml of the mixture was poured and left to cool down. The yeast cells were then streaked on the agar plates and the cultures were grown in a stationary incubator (S1-600R, Lab Companion) for 72 hours at 30°C.