For this to take place, the teacher should understand the central concepts, tools of inquiry and structures of the discipline he or she teaches and creates learning experiences that make these aspects of subject matter meaningful for students (INTASC Principles). This is because
Introduction A theory of learning by J.Novack, “Meaningful learning underline the constructive integration of thinking, feeling, and acting leading to empowerment for commitment and responsibility.” This showed that meaningful learning is the key concept of the education, which students and teachers had to negotiate and integrate to know and fully understand the knowledge or fact. J.Novack, (2010), had also claimed that the central purpose of education is to empower learners to take a change of their own meaning making. Therefore, teaching and learning process has to take place to inspire, motivate, and suit the learners to construct their own cognitive to learn and make learning meaningful. This can only happen if the learners can relate new information to ideas the learners already knows. The learner became better or different from the others was based on the concept attainment of the new material and the quality and the quantity of the relevant knowledge that learners gained as meaningful learning.
Then, learning itself obviously has a certain strategy. Study by Weinstein and Mayer (1986) explain that learning strategy has objective to motivate and facilitate the learner in select, acquires, organize or integrate new knowledge. Then when we talk about learning language there are some styles that used by teacher to
Outcomes-based assessment is comprised of a variety of methods. It is learner-centred meaning the learner is provided some input. A variety of methods or strategies such as self- assessment, portfolio assessment, peer assessment, joint assessment and group assessment. The four basic principles are (Spady, 1994): Clarity Outcomes create a clear guideline of what the learner needs to accomplish by the end of the course. Learners will understand what is expected of them and teachers will know what they need to teach during the course.
Learning strategies represent the behavior and thoughts, which occupies a student during learning. Learning strategies are the techniques used by students to test the new material to develop, organize and / or to understand and influence self-motivation and feelings. The use of mnemonic devices can be seen as one type of learning strategy. Learning strategies can be divided into several categories as under: - 1. Rehearsal strategies (For example, repeat items in a list, highlight the text of an article) Uses repeated practice to learn information.
In the process of learning, they experience, memorize and understand. Students need to be provided with data and materials necessary to focus their thinking and interaction in the lesson for the process of analyzing the information. Teachers need to be actively involved in directing and guiding the
Remedial tutors , therefore, should design multipronged teaching plan and bring into practice various teaching methods to help students maximize their potential and remove the hiccups in learning. Remedial Teaching Objectives Each student is different in terms of ability to learn , standard of academics , learning in class and his performance in academics,
3) Thoughtful Interpretation of information 4). Decision making. Teachers play a major role in classroom assessment as they develop, administer and analyze the questions. They are more likely to apply the results of the assessment to their own teaching. Therefore, it provides feedback on the effectiveness of instruction and gives students a measure of their progress.
Direct strategies: Direct strategies are those which contribute directly to learning and the development of the learners’ language system; for example, cognitive learning strategies and metacognitive learning strategies. A. Cognitive Learning Strategies Cognitive strategies include the steps and processes used in learning or problem solving as it requires direct analysis and conversion and installation of educational materials. These processes contribute to help the learner to build a linguistic concept entrance. Rubin identified six main cognitive learning strategies: • 1. Clarification/verification: It involves asking on how to use a word or expression, for the correct form to use, etc.