The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
500gms of fresh beetroot or its hairy root has to be homogenized with sand continuously for three times in 70% ethanol (100mg/L).Then extracts will be centrifuged at 10xg for half an hour and supernatants will be allowed to vaporise at 40°C under vacuum till they get dried. Then, the residues will be dissolve in 0.5L of 70% of methanol and this sample-methanol mixtures keep in refrigerator at -20 degrees for 24hr, consequently thawed and supernatants are carefully collected from the precipitate. Under vacuum, methanol will be evaporated, at 40°C, from the supernatants and following betalains are lyophilized from aqueous fractions and finally 6.5gms of dry betalains will be obtained (Christ, Alpha 1-2,
2. Experimental 2.1. Catalyst preparation The CuMnOx catalyst was prepared by the co-precipitation method, the aqueous solution manganese acetate (Mn(CH3COO)2.4H2O) and copper (II) nitrate (Cu(NO3)2.2.5H2O) were premixed by stirring for 1 hour. After the proper mixing of the copper nitrate and manganese acetate solution, it was added to the aqueous KMnO4 solution by a burette under the stirring conditions. After dropped completely the copper manganese solution into the precipitant ageing for 2h, then filtered, washing several times with hot deionized water.
Hydrated Lime The results show that hydrated lime increased the intermediate temperature stiffness of the PG 64 - 22 binder. Hydrated lime showed to improve the fatigue properties of the aged binder. It could decrease the fatigue parameter by 23% which is a desired result when cracking due to aging is a concern. The mixing was done at three percentages: 1%, 2%, 3% . The lowest aging index was found to be at 2% by weight of the binder.
The items that were massed were the evaporating dish, watch glass, and NaCO3. The materials were massed once before and once after being heated in the drying oven. The mass of the evaporating Dish before was 46.57 g; while after being heating was 60.15 g. The mass of the watch glass before was 57.97 g and after was 48.75g. There were two masses taken for the substance NaHCO3- one with the evaporating dish and one without, subtracted out after the lab was concluded. The mass of the substance with the dish was 48.79 g before and 62.33 g after; meanwhile, the mass of the substance without the dish was 2.22 g before and 2.18 g after.
By crushing and heating ingredients, lipsticks were prepared. Heated waxes are further mixed for texture and the hot liquid was placed on a metal mold. This was cooled and then when hardened, it was heated again in flame that creates a glossy appearance. Lipsticks acquire their color from several dyes and pigments. Pink lipsticks like the shades shown in Figure 1 are made through adding titanium dioxide to red shades.
When the aqueous layer was added to the vial, calcium chloride was then added to dry the solution. If the solution was dry enough, a large peak between 3300-3500 would have been present in the IR spectrum. In order to obtain the IR spectrum two Classification test were performed. The Bromine test and Permanganate test were used to determine if alkenes were indeed present in the solution. Both test were positive for the compound.
DMF was used as a solvent and AIBN (0.5% w/w of total monomer) as free radical initiator .The reaction was carried out at 70±2° C for 6 hour with constant stirring. After completion of the process it was cooled to room temperature and resultant polymer solution was poured in the large amount of methanol with stirring when polymer precipitated out. It was filtered and washed with methanol. The polymer was purified by repeated precipitation using methanol from solution in DMF and then it dried. 2.3 Preparation of PS
when the pH is 7, allow the solution to cool to room temperature. f. Add about 50 ml water to the solution and stir it. Filter the pale blue precipitate in a Buchner funnel.it is observed that the mixture filters slowly, the way to solve the little problem is to stir the precipitate with 50 ml more water. Wash the precipitate with water followed with alcohol. Place the mixture in a petri dish and let it dry in an oven at 140 ˚C for six hours.
The temperature of the melt was raised to 185 °C and the melt was kept on stirring for 10 minutes. Subsequently, the alloy was cast into copper mold. To homogenize the alloys, the ingots were cold rolled to >90% reduction in thickness and re-melted at 180 °C for 10 minutes and cast into copper mold. Finally, the ingots were again cold rolled to >70% reduction in thickness and preserved for subsequent characterization and